Orthopedics is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, spine diseases, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders.Originally, the term orthopedics meant the correcting of musculoskeletal deformities in children. Nicolas Andry, a professor of medicine at the University of Paris, coined the term in the first textbook written on the subject in 1741. He advocated the use of exercise, manipulation, and splinting to treat deformities in children. His book was directed towards parents, and while some topics would be familiar to orthopedists today, it also included 'excessive sweating of the palms' and freckles.
Osteoporosis itself has no symptoms,its main consequence is the increased risk of bone fractures. Osteoporotic fractures occur in situations where healthy people would not normally break a bone; they are therefore regarded as fragility fractures. Typical fragility fractures occur in the vertebral column, rib, hip and wrist.Prevention of osteoporosis includes a proper diet during childhood and efforts to avoid medications that increase the rate of bone loss. Efforts to prevent broken bones in those with osteoporosis include a good diet, exercise, and fall prevention. .The risk factors include-
Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure performed by an orthopedic surgeon that alters or completely replaces a joint in the body, usually to restore normal motion and relieve pain in a malformed or diseased joint, such as the hip, knee, shoulder, elbow or ankle. Arthroplasty may also be required due to cartilage that wears out, limb/joint malalignment, joint space narrowing, a stiff joint, disease, or other degenerative or traumatic conditions.
. They are of six types namely:-
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of your bones wears down over time. Although osteoarthritis can damage any joint, the disorder most commonly affects joints in your hands, knees, hips and spine.
Different medications are :-
Physical medicine and rehabilitation
Physical medicine and rehabilitation is a medical specialty that helps people regain body functions they lost due to medical conditions or injury. This term is often used to describe the whole medical team, not just the doctors.
Rehabilitation can help many body functions, including bowel and bladder problems, chewing and swallowing, problems thinking or reasoning, movement or mobility, speech, and language.
The psychiatrists related to this field treat patients having:-
physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions. Physical therapy is provided by physical therapists who promote, maintain, or restore health through physical examination, diagnosis, prognosis, patient education, physical intervention, rehabilitation, disease prevention and health promotion. Physical therapists are known as physiotherapists in many countries.
Physical therapists are known as physiotherapists in many countries.It has many specialities including:-
Tendinitis, also known as tendonitis, is the inflammation of a tendon. It happens when a person overuses or injures a tendon, for example, during sport. It is normally linked to an acute injury with inflammation. It often affects the elbow, wrist, finger, thigh, and other parts of the body.
. The more affected areas are:-