Bioinformatics in Genetics
Bioinformatics, is related to genetics and genomics, is a science sub discipline that involves using computer technology to collect, store, analyse, and disseminate the biological data and information, such as DNA and amino acid sequences. Scientists and clinicians use databases that organize and index such biological information to increase our understanding of health and disease. Bioinformatics looking for the pattern within sequences of DNA (or) Protein.
Bio-Safety and Bioethics
Biosafety is the prevention of large scale incidents and any harmful effects on people and environment due to biological research. Bioethics aims to address ethical and moral issues due to new advancement in biology such as cloning, genetically modified crops, sometimes also treats ethical questions relating to non-human biological environment also
In developmental genetics, research opportunities include the examinations of mechanisms that embryonic and post embryonic development, cell signalling, transcriptional pattering, stem cells, cell differentiation and morphogenesis. These process are studied in model systems for animal and plant development, including drosophila, ascidians and Arabidopsis.
Gene Structure and Organization
Gene structure is the organisation of specialised sequence elements within a gene. Gene contains the information necessary for living cells to survival and reproduces. In most organisms genes are made up of DNA where, the particular DNA sequences determine the function of gene. they are composed with unit of hereditary information that occupies a fixed position on a chromosome, Genes achieve their effects by directing the synthesis of proteins.
Genetic epidemiology is the study of the role of genetic factors in determining the health and diseases in families and in populations and the interplay of such genetic factors with environmental factors. Genetic epidemiology seeks to desire statistical and qualitative analysis of how genetics work in large groups.
Genetics Disorders and Treatments
Many Genetic disorders results from gene changes that are present in eventually every cell in the body. genes are building blocks of heredity. They are palled from parent to child. Sometimes there is a mutation, a change in genes. The mutation changes the genes instructions for making a protein so that protein does not work properly. This can cause medical condition called genetic disorder. Genetic tests on blood and other tissues can identify genetic disorders.
Human Epigenome Analysis
Human genetics and epigenome analysis of DNA methylation has been added as an extra epigenetic layer. Because epigenetics changes are reversible and do not change their DNA sequence. But they can change how your body reads a DNA sequence, in general high levels of DNA methylation in gene regulatory elements are anti-coated with active genes and chromatin accessibility and they brings out the action as turning genes, controlling the production of protein particular cells.
Neurodegenerative Diseases and Stress
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the progression of a number of neuro, degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease AD, Parkinson’s disease PD, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS. These diseases are characterised by extensive oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. This damage can lead to cell death by a variety of different mechanisms, either by deactivating important process.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genes affect a person’s response to drugs this field combines pharmacology the study of drugs genomics the study of genes and their functions to develop effective, safe medications that can be prescribed based on a person genetic makeup. Pharmacogenomics may prevent these by identifying patients at risk. It may improve health care costs and efficiency.
Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering
Regenerative medicine is a broad field that includes tissue engineering but also incorporates research on self-healing where the body uses its own systems, sometimes with help foreign biological material to recreate cells and rebuild tissues and organs. The focus of tissue engineering is resorting, maintaining and improving functions of damaged tissues and organs.