Gynecology and Obstetrics
Gynecology and obstetrics are the studies of the feminine genital system. Obstetrics is that the branch of medicine that focuses on women during pregnancy, childbirth, and therefore the postpartum period. Gynecology may be a broader field, that specializes in the overall health care of girls and treating conditions that affect the feminine reproductive organs. Doctors who are specialized in Gynecology and obstetrics will need to undergo four years of post-medical school training within the areas of women’s general health, pregnancy, labors and delivery, preconception and postpartum care, prenatal testing, and genetics. For instance, women could also be referred as gynecologists within the earlier stages of pregnancy, and obstetricians later in their term.
Gynecologic oncology involves the diagnosis and treatment of cancers of the feminine genital system, including the ovaries, endometrium, uterus, cervix, Fallopian tube, peritoneal, vagina and vulva. A gynecological oncologist will work closely with the remainder of your care team to tailor treatments to your specific needs, reduce side effects, and address concerns like fertility or sexual function issues.
Treatment of gynecologic cancers typically begins with a spread of tests and examinations, which can include a pelvic exam, ultrasound, imaging tests, and/ or lab tests. These procedures and tests help a gynecologic oncologist determine the sort of reproductive cancer and its stage to rise develop a targeted treatment plan.
Maternal Fetal Medicine
Maternal-fetal medicine may be a vast topic and is professional in Gynecology and therefore the Number of Research institutes performing on the Maternal-fetal medicine are approximately 33 or more and also as some universities which are giving training to women to be Professionals in Maternal-fetal medicine , total number of universities offering this promising topic are approximately 160 performing on Maternal-fetal medicine and there's also a funding of around $30000- $50000 and Academia 30% , 20% industry et al. 50% are included during this topic. Maternal–fetal medicine specialists are specialists within the sector of obstetrics. They’ll perform prenatal tests, provide treatments, and perform surgeries. After birth, they'll work closely with pediatricians or neonatologists. Perinatologist assist with pre-existing health concerns and complications caused by pregnancy in mothers. Obstetrician-gynecologists who undergo a further 3 years of specialized training within the assessment and management of high-risk pregnancies are called Maternal–fetal medicine specialists.
Gynecological Endocrinology focuses on the treatment of disorders associated with menstruation, fertility and menopause. Reproductive endocrinology and Fetal-Placental neuroendocrine development refer to a subspecialty that focuses on the biological causes and its interventional treatment of infertility and its development. It’s associated with the control and performance of the various endocrine glands in women, the consequences of reproductive events on the system, and therefore the consequences of endocrine disorders on reproduction.
Urogynecology is an in depth topic and is professional in Gynecology and therefore the number of Research institutes performing on the Urogynecology are approximately 30 or more and some universities also give training to women on Urogynecology, total number of universities which specialize in this area are approximately 70 and also obtain a funding of around $10000- $30000 and includes 10% industry, 30% of academia et al. 60% .It is a surgical sub-specialty of urology and Gynecology.
Urogynecology involves diagnosis and treatment of enuresis and feminine pelvic floor disorders. Urogynecology is additionally a subspecialty of Female Pelvic Medicine and plastic surgery. Robotic-assisted surgery has evolved vastly over the past 20 years with persistently improving technology, proving to help surgeons in multiple subspecialty disciplines as discussed in many gynecologic conferences and gynecologic meetings worldwide.
A midwife may be a professional in midwifery. Midwifery is that health science and therefore the profession concerned with pregnancy, childbirth, and therefore the postpartum period, besides sexual and reproductive health of girls throughout their lives. The particular duties of the midwife are mainly to help within the birthing process. It’s said that the rates of obstetrical intervention in birth are rising worldwide. For instance, national cesarean rates in Taiwan, China, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, and Puerto Rico are between 40 and 50 percent. Within us, the cesarean rate has risen since the first 2000s from 23 percent to 29.1 percent; most European countries, Canada, and Australia have cesarean rates within the mid-20 percent range. Although professional midwives attend the bulk of births in a number of these countries, they're bio medically socialized and sometimes overworked, and are unable to stem the rising cesarean tide, which is essentially obstetrician-driven.
In the recent study, an incidence of three in 1000 cases of bladder or ureteral injury was identified among operative laparoscopic cases. Bladder injury is presumably to occur during either insertion of a suprapubic trocar or when exposing the lower uterine segment at time of hysterectomy. The foremost common sites of ureteral injury are likely to be at the pelvic brim during ligation of the infundibulopelvic ligament and near the uterosacral ligament during ligation of the uterine vessels. Careful skeletonization of the broad ligament can help prevent inadvertent injury, particularly when attempting to regulate persistent bleeding after ligation of those pedicles.
Adolescent gynecology is an emerging specialty that has adolescent endocrinology, gynecology, adolescent surgery, dermatology, psychiatry, public health medicine and genetics. It thus addresses a good spectrum of diseases from the newborn period to adolescence. The adolescent, who is not any longer a toddler but almost an adult, possess a specific management problem to the normal specialties. Within the field of adolescent gynecology quite anywhere else, the medical attitude is usually striking by its extremes.
The branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, diagnosis and management of reproductive problems is known to be reproductive medicine. The aim of reproductive medicine is to improve and maintain the quality of reproductive health. The knowledge of reproductive medicine is based on reproductive anatomy, endocrinology, physiology and pathology. If the topic of reproductive medicine is taken into account it can be further sub divided into prenatal medicine and postnatal medicine. The issues addressed in reproductive medicine are sexual education family planning, reproductive system diseases, birth control, infertility and sexual dysfunction. Ovulation, pregnancy, menstruation, menopause and other gynecological problems are also assessed under reproductive medicine.
Obstetrics and Gynecology Nurse
Gynecology and OB nurses are also mentioned as OB/GYN nurses, and area unit specially trained to supply medical aid for women throughout gestation, labor and childbirth, yet as give medical aid for women with health problems with or involving their system. OB/GYN nursing might be a broad field, therefore nurses usually any consider a specific space, like perinatal nursing or labor & delivery nursing at hospitals and organic process centers or in gynecology nursing in an exceedingly physician's workplace. OB/GYN nurses care and support for women from the moment they start their period of play all the way through climacteric. They educate women on physical and sexual health, and discuss patients' choices for contraception, yet as preventative measures like HPV vaccinations for the interference of cervical cancer and mammograms for the primary detection of carcinoma. OB/GYN nurse practitioners usually serve below the authority of a medical practitioner as medical aid givers to women, and should write prescriptions, order workplace tests and build diagnoses.
Sexual and Reproductive Health
Good sexual and reproductive health may be a state of physical, mental and social well-being altogether matters concerning the genital system. It implies that individuals are ready to have a satisfying and sexual activity life, the potential to breed, and therefore the freedom to make a decision if, when, and the way often to try to. One’s sexual and reproductive health, individuals want to access to accurate information and therefore the safe, effective, affordable and acceptable contraception method of their choice. They’re going to be told and empowered to guard themselves from sexually transmitted infections. And once they plan to have children, women must have access to services which will help them have a fit pregnancy, safe delivery and healthy baby. Every individual has the proper to form their own choices about their sexual and reproductive health. UNFPA, in conjunction with partners, works towards the universal access to sexual and reproductive health and rights and also birth control.
Assisted Reproductive Technology
Assisted reproductive technology is employed to realize pregnancy artificially. Assisted reproductive technology includes procedures namely fertility medication, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and surrogacy. ART is primarily utilized in treating infertility among couples. It belongs mainly to the sector of reproductive endocrinology and infertility. The techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), cryopreservation, embryo transfer, assisted zona hatching, autologous endometrial co-culture, zygote intrafallopian transfer, cytoplasmic transfer, egg donors, sperm donors, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, emryo splitting, GIFT, ZIFT, sex selection and surgical sperm retrival are included in this. Of these methods are being widely used as problems of infertility are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. While a number of these methods are safe but majority of them is harmful to the fetus because the babies are born with some quite birth defects or genetic defects. ART also carries the danger of heterotopic pregnancy. In IVF and ICSI babies are born with low birth weight, decreased expression of proteins in energy metabolism, visual defect and spastic paralysis. An ART procedure within us has doubled within the last 10years with the value starting from $2,000 to $30,000. ART procedures should be only performed after examine the medical condition of the couple. Many a times ART proves to be harmful to both the mother and child.
Pediatric gynecologists provide care to female genital system of youngsters which are wont to diagnose and treat conditions. It provides a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach that's sensitive to the psychological and emotional needs of our patients and their families. Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology mainly focuses on uterus, ovaries, vagina and vulva. It works closely with many sorts of healthcare providers to worry for patients who have medical or developmental issues which will affect their reproductive health.
Generally, Infertility is characterized as not having the capacity to get pregnant (consider) following one year of unprotected sex. Infertility is the failure to wind up pregnant/impregnate or convey a pregnancy to full term. There are numerous reasons for Infertility, including some that medicinal mediation can treat. A lady is considered as an infertile on the off chance that she has striven for 1 year to get pregnant and hasn't utilized anti-conception medication. A man is viewed as infertile if he has too couple of sperm or his sperm are too unfortunate to even consider combining with a lady's egg.