Title: Probiotic bacteria and pathobionts of the vaginal microbiota and their relationship with the human protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.
The human vaginal tract harbours a large number of microbes believed to play an important role in influencing the outcome of vaginal infections. In recent years, studies have differentiated the natural vaginal microbiota into so called community state types (CST) I / II / III / V, which are dominated by different Lactobacillus species, whereas community state type IV is defined by a species-diversified composition of the microbiota and the absence of lactobacilli. The human protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease is commonly accompanied by CST-IV. Interestingly, CST-IV includes species associated with another common vaginal infection, bacterial vaginosis (BV). Both infections are associated with the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and gynaecological complications, which likely are a result from the disruption of the cervicovaginal epithelial barrier. However, key aspects of the complex interaction between the parasite and anaerobic bacteria of CST-IV associated with BV and the protective mechanisms of lactobacilli remain elusive. We showed that T. vaginalis and BV - associated bacteria (BVB) cooperatively interact to enhance paracellular permeability of the cervicovaginal epithelium by dysregulating Tight Junctions. Our group also reported that BVB increase the adhesion properties of a previously low adherent strain of T. vaginalis (G3) and that this effect is time-and contact-dependent. In addition, we reported that the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus gasseri (CST-II) against the adhesion of T. vaginalis to host cells is contact-dependent as well and that bacterial surface proteins are largely responsible for this inhibitory phenotype. We found that the aggregation-promoting factor APF-2 from this bacterium significantly contributes to the inhibition of the adhesion of T. vaginalis to human vaginal ectocervical cells. Our studies highlight the importance of understanding the interaction between pathogens and the microbiota and their implications on human health and disease as well as to help develop novel and specific therapeutic strategies.
School of Biological Science, University of Auckland, 1010 Auckland, New Zealand
Title: Impact of applying antibiotic policy on antibiotic utilization
Objective: our study was conducted to assess the benefit of applying antibiotic policy in ICU department during the period from July 2019 to October 2019 in aim to improve patient's outcome, cost reduction & incorporate the detection, prevention and control of antimicrobial resistance into institutional strategic goals.
Patients and method: applying antibiotic policy in ICU department during the period from July 2019 to October 2019, developing and implementing hospital antimicrobial policy which is available to specialists in all clinical area, reported infection are prescribed according to best practice guidelines and documentation of drug allergy .The prescribed AB is formatted as physician order and choosing the (antibiotics, dose, interval and duration) and should be renew every 7 days ( automatic stop order). Monitoring and review of policy.
Conclusion: antibiotic policy in ICU provides high cure rate, less cost, minimize side effect & control of antibiotic resistance.
Infection Control Consultant, Health Service Centre, Egypt
Title: The Simple Available Phosphatase Enzyme Test For The Identification of Pathogenic Candida Species
To demonstrate the production of hydrolytic enzyme such as phosphatase among candida species and strains. Candida was the most important yeast isolated from clinical material was noticeably producing enzyme. These are the virulence factor may play important role in pathogenicity of candidiasis and able to attack cell and molecules of host immune system to resist antimicrobial activity. The phosphatase test is not introduced here as regular identification test but could be available method for the separation of Candida albicans from other species of candida particularly C. tropicalis which is actively phosphatase producer. The total of 300 yeast sample were isolated from clinical material tested using p-nitrophenyl phosphatase as a substrate in SD-broth and SD-Agar followed by 3 protocol. In this study clearly observed phosphatase producer and non phosphatase producer strain of candida species. The variation in phosphatase production among pathogenic Candida species were effected byPh, temperature, nutrient and substrate.
Department of Microbiology Jinnah University for women Karachi, Pakistan.
Title: Isolation of Mycobacterium bovis and Non-tuberculosis Mycobacteria (NTM) from cats and mice in tuberculin-positive dairy cattle
Background and aims: Mycobacterium bovis is a major cause of zoonotic diseases. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential role of cats and mice in the transmission of Mycobacterium in cow dairy herds.
Materials and Methods: A total of 7 cats and 5 mice were screened from an animal husbandry. Gastric acids of captured cats were cultured on LJ (Löwenstein–Jensen). The liver, spleen, and lung of mice were cultured on LJ medium followed by sterilization. The acid-fast staining and also PCR were used for detection of Mycobacterium spp.
Results: Five from 7 cats were positive by acid-fast staining and PCR 16SrRNA were confirmed the environmental Mycobacterium additional one from 7 cats was positive by acid-fast staining, PCR and 16SrRNA sequencing methods was confirmed the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTB). Three out of 5 mice were positive by acid-fast staining. PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing methods were confirmed the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTB). Currently, we are conducting PCR-RFLP and RP Typing to identify this bacterium more precisely.
Conclusion: We indicated that the mice and cats are potential source for Mycobacterium spp. Thus, they can infect dairy cattle farms.
School of Veterinary, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch, Garmsar, Iran
Title: Spontaneous Splenic Rupture Complicating Severe P. falciparum Infection: A Case Report and Literature Review
Malaria is a parasitic life-threatening endemic disease in over 100 tropics and subtropics. Malarial splenic rupture (MSR) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of severe malarial infection and hence it deserves special attention. The estimated incidence of MSR is 2% in acute malarial infections; however, the exact incidence is largely unknown due to the substantial under-reporting. A high index of clinical suspicion is warranted for the early diagnosis as delayed or missed diagnosis can be potentially fatal . We report on a 32-year-old Sudanese male who was a resident from Plasmodium falciparum malaria-endemic area, who was diagnosed with severe P. falciparum infection as per WHO criteria when he presented with an acute abdomen and hypovolemic shock due to spontaneous splenic rupture following five days of onset of characteristic febrile pattern of Plasmodium falciparum. The diagnosis of MSR was suspected clinically and confirmed by radiological imaging (ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT scan). He was managed conservatively with intravenous quinine therapy (a slow infusion of 600 mg every 8 hours) as per national malaria treatment protocol, intravenous fluids and blood transfusions and he had made a remarkable recovery after sever days. A repeat blood film smear on day 7 confirmed parasitic clearance, and quinine therapy was discontinued, and he was prescribed a 5 day course of doxycycline (100 mg once daily). A follow-up CT scan on day 10 revealed resolution of the subcapsular splenic haematoma with no residual collections. A combination of three principal factors, which ultimately result in a subcapsular haematoma formation, is thought to be implicated in pathogenesis of MSR. These factors are (I) cellular hyperplasia and venous-sinusoidal congestion leading to increased tension and stress on the capsule, (II) vascular occlusion of the reticuloendothelial cells resulting in thrombotic or ischemic events, and (III) episodic increase in intra-abdominal pressure accompanying coughing, sneezing, and laughing which add more stress on the diseased and friable spleen [2, 4]. In the modern surgical practice era, a non-operative management can be safely followed for haemodynamically stable patients and splenectomy is indicated for haemodynamically unstable patients with ongoing shock as a critical life-saving surgery .
Mayo University Hospital, Westport Road, Castlebar, Co. Mayo, Republic of Ireland
Title: Comparison of nucleotide sequences of recent and previous lineages of peste-des-petits-ruminants viruses of sheep and goats in Nigeria
Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) is a highly contagious, fatal and economically important viral disease of small ruminants that is still endemic and militates against the production of sheep and goats in endemic areas of the world. The aim of this study was to describe the viral strains within the country. This was carried out by collecting tissue and swab samples from sheep and goats in various agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The phylogeny of archived PPRV strains or isolates and those circulating and causing recent outbreaks was determined by sequencing of the nucleoprotein (N)-gene. Twenty tissue and swab samples from apparently healthy and sick sheep and goats were collected randomly from 18 states, namely 3 states in each of the 6 agro-ecological zones visited. A total of 360 samples were collected. A total of 35 samples of 360 (9.7%) tested positive by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, of which 25 were from oculo-nasal swabs and 10 were from tissue samples. Neighbour-joining phylogenetic analysis using Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (PAUP) identified four different lineages, that is, lineages I, II, III and IV. Interestingly, the Nigerian strains described in this study grouped in two separate major lineages, that is, lineages II and IV. Strains from Sokoto, Oyo, Plateau and Ondo states grouped according to the historical distribution of PPRV together with the Nigerian 75/1 strain of lineage II, while other strains from Sokoto, Oyo, Plateau, Akwa-Ibom, Adamawa, Kaduna, Lagos, Bauchi, Niger and Kano states grouped together with the East African and Asian strains of lineage IV. This finding confirms that both lineage II and IV strains of PPRV are circulating in Nigeria. Previously, only strains of lineage II were found to be present in the country.
Viral Research Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, Nigeria