Title: Prevalence of physical injuries among pediatric patients who consulted at the emergency room of a secondary government hospital in Paranaque
A prospective, observational and descriptive study with an objective to determine the prevalence of physical injuries among pediatric patients who consulted at the emergency room of a secondary government hospital in Paranaque from October 2015–March 2016. Participants were aged 0-18 years old, who consulted the emergency room because of physical injury acquired from accidents. Data was gathered from the patients and/or patient’s companion which were recorded in their charts, Data gathered and compared were: 1. Age, 2. Sex, 3. Time of injury, 4. Place of injury, 5. Cause of injury, 6. Physical findings, 7. Disposition. Univariate analysis frequency distribution was used for statistical analysis. Results showed that injuries are the majority in aged 5-9 and 10-14 years old. There is a male predominance. The most common causes were falling, sharp objects, violence, vehicular accident, heat-related, animal bite, foreign body ingestion, poisoning, and near-drowning. Injuries reported were abrasion, laceration, hematoma, contusion and puncture wound. The majority were discharged home. In conclusion, the top three causes of injuries were fall, sharp objects, and violence both in second place and vehicular accident in third. Injuries are better prevented than treated. Being aware of the causes involved, we could be able to prevent their occurrence and their consequences. Proper supervision for younger children and discipline for older children is key to prevention.
Lucie Zackova has completed her degree as a Doctor of Medicine from Iloilo Doctors’ College of Medicine, Philippines. She had her pediatric residency training in Batangas Medical Center and fellowship training in newborn medicine at Philippine General Hospital. She is presently the chairperson of the committee on care for small babies at Batangas Medical Center, Philippines.
Title: Hemoglobin levels and postoperative outcome in pediatric surgical patients
Background: Postoperative outcome in children is multifactorial. Among the reported predictors of postoperative outcome, preoperative anemia has been related to adverse outcome in children. A secondary analysis was undertaken to determine the correlation between hemoglobin levels and postoperative outcome in children included in a cohort of an observational pediatric study published previously since this analysis has not been done.
Objective: To determine the correlation between preoperative, intra-operative, postoperative hemoglobin levels and postoperative outcome in children in neurosurgery, abdominal and orthopedic surgery. Methods: Secondary analysis of a sub-cohort of 252 pediatric surgical patients with a median age of 62 months 12.50-144.00.
Results: Preoperative hemoglobin levels were negatively correlated to length of stay in the intensive care unit (LOSICU) (p=0.002), to length of hospital stay (LOS) (p<0.0001), to the number of patients with intra-operative and/or postoperative complications (p<0.0001) and to resurgery (p<0001). Low preoperative hemoglobin levels below 6 g/dL were correlated to higher postoperative LOSICU and LOS. Intra-operative hemoglobin levels were negatively correlated to LOS (p<0.0001) and to the number of patients with intra-operative and/or postoperative complications (p=0.004). Low intraoperative hemoglobin levels below 5 g/dL were correlated to higher LOS. Postoperative hemoglobin levels were positively correlated to LMV (p=0.002).
Conclusion: Hemoglobin levels are among other multifactorial predictors of postoperative outcome in pediatric surgical patients emphasizing the importance of a global patient blood management implementation program to improve outcome in surgical children.
Keywords: Anemia, hemoglobin levels, pediatric surgery, postoperative outcome, patient blood management, transfusion.
Claudine Kumba graduated as Medical Doctor in 2001, completed her specialization in Anesthesiology in 2006 at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, ULB, Brussels, Belgium. She has a Pediatric Anesthesia specialization graduation since 2010 from University of AixMarseille, France. She has a specialization graduation in Echocardiography applied to Anesthesia and Critical Care from University of Montpellier 1, 2011-2012, France. She has a Critical Care Medicine specialization graduation since 2014 from University of Montpellier 1, France. She is a Medical Doctor in Pediatric Anesthesia- Critical Care in Necker Enfants-Malades University Hospital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Université de Paris, France