Cancer Metabolism And The Control Of The EpigenomeCancer metabolism refers to the alterations in cellular metabolism pathways that are evident in cancer cells compared with most normal tissue cells. Metabolic alterations in cancer cells are numerous and include aerobic glycolysis, reduced oxidative phosphorylation and the increased generation of biosynthetic intermediates needed for cell growth and proliferation. Epigenetic changes can help determine whether genes are turned on or off and can influence the production of proteins in certain cells, ensuring that only necessary proteins are produced. For example, proteins that promote bone growth are not produced in muscle cells. Patterns of epigenetic modification vary among individuals, different tissues within an individual, and even different cells.
Cancer Cell Plasticity And Resistance To Cancer TherapiesDuring cancer progression, tumor cells undergo molecular and phenotypic changes collectively referred to as cellular plasticity. Such changes result from microenvironmental cues, stochastic genetic and epigenetic alterations, and/or treatment-imposed selective pressures, thereby contributing to tumor heterogeneity and therapy resistance. Epithelial–mesenchymal plasticity is the best-known case of tumor cell plasticity, but recent work has uncovered other examples, often with functional consequences. In this review, we explore the nature and role(s) of these diverse cellular plasticity programs in premalignant progression, tumor evolution, and adaptation to therapy and consider ways in which targeting plasticity could lead to novel anticancer treatments.
Visualizing Early Cancer In The Tissue ContextEarly identification of high-risk disease could greatly reduce both mortality and morbidity due to oral cancer. We describe a simple handheld device that facilitates the direct visualization of oral-cavity fluorescence for the detection of high-risk precancerous and early cancerous lesions. Blue excitation light is employed to excite green-red fluorescence from fluorophores in the oral tissues. Tissue fluorescence is viewed directly along an optical axis collinear with the axis of excitation to reduce inter- and intraoperator variability. This robust, field-of-view device enables the direct visualization of fluorescence in the context of surrounding normal tissue.
Immunotherapy - Opportunities & ChallengesCancer immunotherapy is now established as a powerful way to treat cancer. The recent clinical success of immune checkpoint blockade (antagonists of CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1) highlights both the universal power of treating the immune system across tumour types and the unique features of cancer immunotherapy. Immune-related adverse events, atypical clinical response patterns, durable responses, and clear overall survival benefit distinguish cancer immunotherapy from cytotoxic cancer therapy. Combination immunotherapies that transform non-responders to responders are under rapid development.
New Technologies In Diagnostic Onco-PathologyIn the past decade, advances in precision oncology have resulted in an increased demand for predictive assays that enable the selection and stratification of patients for treatment. The enormous divergence of signalling and transcriptional networks mediating the crosstalk between cancer, stromal and immune cells complicates the development of functionally relevant biomarkers based on a single gene or protein. However, the result of these complex processes can be uniquely captured in the morphometric features of stained tissue specimens. The possibility of digitizing whole-slide images of tissue has led to the advent of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning tools in digital pathology, which enable mining of subvisual morphometric phenotypes and might, ultimately, improve patient management. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate various Al-based computational approaches for digital pathology, focusing on deep neural networks and ‘hand-crafted’ feature-based methodologies.
Basic Mechanisms Of Cell DeathOver the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process.
Tumour Immunology And MicrobiotaTumor immunology refers to the relationship between immune function and tumor cells, which is crucial for our understanding of the mechanisms of both tumor rejection and tumor progression. The immunological mechanisms involved in cancer growth are highly complex, including tissue-resident and blood-derived cells. The human immune system mounts natural endogenous response to highly immunogenic tumor cells through a series of steps, including the presenting of tumor antigens to T cells via antigen-presenting cells (APCs), priming and activation of T cells in the lymph nodes, trafficking and infiltration of T cells into tumor beds, recognition of cancer cells by T cells, development of antigen-specific effector and memory T cells, and humoral immunity, allowing effector T cells and other endogenous immune cells, as well as tumor-effective antibodies to tumor to eliminate cancer cells. Microbiota areecologicalcommunitiesof commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals. Microbiota includes bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis of their host. The synonymous term microbiome describes either the collective genomes of the microorganisms that reside in an environmental niche or the microorganisms themselves.
Cancer Pathology And GeneticsRecent technical advances have brought insights into the biology of cancer in human, establishing it as a disease driven by genetic mutations. Beside inherited family tumour syndromes caused by germline mutations, somatic genetic alterations occur early in tumourigenesis, which accumulate during the progression of the disease and its treatment. Based on these observations, medical oncology has started to enter an era of stratified medicine, where treatment selection is becoming tailored to drugable molecular pathways. As a pre-requisite of an individualised treatment concept, molecular and genetic characterisation of the individual tumour has to be performed to align the most appropriate therapies according to the patient's disease.
DNA damage ResponsesThe DNA damage response is a network of cellular pathways that sense, signal and repair DNA lesions. Surveillance proteins that monitor DNA integrity can activate cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair pathways in response to DNA damage, to prevent the generation of potentially deleterious mutations
Advanced Cancer Research And Treatment If you are diagnosed with advanced cancer, or your disease has progressed to this point, you will have a number of issues to talk about with your loved ones and your health care team. You’ll need to discuss future steps and what to expect.Having these talks may not be easy. But knowing your options and sharing them with others will make it easier for you to move forward with your care.
Cancer Prevention VaccinesVaccines, also called vaccinations, are medicines that help the body fight disease. They can train the immune system to recognize and destroy harmful substances. There are 2 types of cancer vaccines: Prevention vaccines: Doctors give prevention vaccines to healthy people to keep certain cancers from developing. Like vaccines for the chicken pox or the flu, they protect the body from viruses that can cause disease. A person has to get the vaccine before the virus infects him or her. Otherwise, the vaccine willnotwork. Treatment vaccines: Cancer treatment vaccines, also called therapeutic vaccines, are a type of immunotherapy.The vaccines work to boost the body's natural defenses to fight a cancer.
Cancer Screening & Diagnosis Checking for cancer (or for abnormal cells that may become cancer) in people who have no symptoms is called screening. Screening can help doctors find and treat several types of cancer early, before they cause symptoms. Early detection is important because when abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread and be harder to treat.
Cancer NanotechnologyCancer nanotechnology is a branch of nanotechnology concerned with the application of both nanomaterials and nanotechnology approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.Research on nanotechnology cancer therapy extends beyond drug delivery into the creation of new therapeutics available only through use of nanomaterial properties. Although small compared to cells, nanoparticles are large enough to encapsulate many small molecule compounds, which can be of multiple types.
Cancer EpidemiologyCancer epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of the likelihood of cancer development. Cancer epidemiology can be used to identify events that increase or decrease cancer incidence in specific populations. Three types of epidemiologic research apply to the field of cancer. Descriptive epidemiology focuses on the trends and frequency of disease in a given population. Analytic epidemiology deals with identifying causes and the predisposing risk associated with the development of disease. Clinical epidemiology outlines screening programs and evaluates the impact of prevention strategies on overall outcome.
Breast Cancer & Women safety Breast cancer prevention starts with healthy habits such as limiting alcohol and staying active. Understand how to reduce your breast cancer risk. If you're concerned about developing breast cancer, you might be wondering if there are steps you can take to help prevent breast cancer. Some risk factors, such as family history, can't be changed. However, there are lifestyle changes you can make to lower your risk.
Managing Cancer Care & Patient SupportNo matter what decisions you make about your cancer care, know that support is always available to help you manage your care. This section includes information about health care services, insurance options, advance directives, and using trusted resources when seeking print and online sources of health information. If you have been diagnosed with cancer, finding a doctor and treatment facility for your cancer care is an important step to getting the best treatment possible. Learn tips for choosing a doctor and hospital or treatment facility to manage your cancer care.
Cancer Causes And Risk FactorsCancer develops when there are changes to the DNA (mutations) within a cell that allow it to grow out of control. The cancerous cells can then crowd out normal cells or invade body tissues. Radiation, cancer-causing substances, infections, and your genetic makeup can raise your risk of mutations that result in cancer.Most people don't realize that cancer is preventable in many cases. Learning what causes cancer and what the risk factors are is the first step in cancer prevention. Common Causes: • Smoking and tobacco use • Alcohol • Lack of physical activity • Being overweight or obese • Poor diet • Sun exposure • Radiation exposure • Virus infections and other infections • Exposure to cancer-causing substances • Family history and genetics • Chronic inflammation • Hormones • Immunosuppression • Age
Nutrition And MetabolismPeople with cancer need to maintain a healthy body weight and eat nutritious foods. Sometimes the side effects of cancer treatment can cause a person to eat less and lose weight. Losing weight without trying can make you weak and malnourished. On the other hand, some cancer treatments may cause weight gain.Maintain a healthy weight. For many people, this means avoiding weight loss by getting enough calories every day. For people who are obese, this may mean losing weight. Ask your health care team if you should try to lose weight during treatment. It may be better to wait until after treatment so that you have all the nutrition you need to stay strong. If you do try to lose weight during treatment, it should be moderate, meaning only about a pound a week.
Radiology And Imaging TechnologiesThe radiology imaging channel includes technology news related to computed tomography (CT), digital radiography (DR / X-ray), ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographic fluoroscopy (R/F), mammography, angiography, 3-D printing, contrast media injectors, molecular imaging, neurological imaging, pediatric imaging and radiation dose management.
Revealing Cancer Heterogeneity Across ScalesTumour heterogeneity describes the observation that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential.This phenomenon occurs both between tumours and within tumours .A minimal level of intra-tumour heterogeneity is a simple consequence of the imperfection of DNA replication: whenever a cell divides, a few mutations are acquiredleading to a diverse population of cancer cells. The heterogeneity of cancer cells introduces significant challenges in designing effective treatment strategies. However, research into understanding and characterizing heterogeneity can allow for a better understanding of the causes and progression of disease. In turn, this has the potential to guide the creation of more refined treatment strategies that incorporate knowledge of heterogeneity to yield higher efficacy.