Polymer synthesis: synthesis of copolymers, block-polymers, polyesters, elastomer, polyolefin, polyamides, polycarbonates, rubber, thermoplastics, thermosets, methods for polymerization, etc. Polymer analysis: characterization and analysis of polymers, polymeric materials and polymer additives, polymerization mechanism, measurement of molecular weight, size, conformation, structure, properties, and behavior of polymers, separation, spectroscopy, and scattering techniques, structure-property-processing relationships.
The following summary list of current polymer research topics is necessarily quite brief. The field is large and will continue to have a great impact on all levels of society for the foreseeable future. The growing use of polymers as biomaterials
Nanotechnology is rapidly affecting all engineering disciplines as new products and applications are being found and brought to market. This session will present an overview of nanotechnology and let you learn about the advances in the field and how it could impact you. Some of the areas touched upon will be nanomaterials with their multifunctional capabilities, nanotechnology impact on energy systems, Nanobiotechnology including Nanomedicine, and nanotechnology relevant to space systems with a focus on ECLSS. Also, some important advances related to thermal systems will be presented as well as future predictions on nanotechnology.
Scientific research on the use of nanomaterials for energy applications has grown substantially over the past decade, making more evident the vital role played by these materials in recent advances in energy harvesting, conversion, and storage. Although several studies have already been published on the synthesis, characterization, properties, and energy applications of nanofilms and nanostructures, there is a vast field to be searched in new synthesis methods, exploitation of functional properties, and application in photovoltaic, fuel cells, supercapacitors, batteries, photoelectrochemical/electrolytic hydrogen generation, and thermoelectric generation. This Research Topic will explore state-of-the-art research in nanomaterials and their energy applications and will gather a set of theoretical and experimental papers focusing on Nanofilms and nanostructures.
The use of spectroscopy to probe the structure of biological materials and to identify particular chemical groups in living organisms has been growing rapidly in recent years. In-plant biology, there has been considerable focus in the field of plant cell walls, where the elaborate mixture of polysaccharides and phenolic compounds can be amenable to various spectroscopic applications such as infrared (IR), Raman, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. However, each of these techniques has its own unique set of benefits as well as limitations, and thus a clear understanding of the specific scientific questions we are trying to answer is necessary before embarking on spectroscopic characterization of plant material.
Spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) range is one of the most commonly encountered laboratory techniques in food analysis. Diverse examples, such as the quantification of macro components (total carbohydrate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method), quantification of micro components, (thiamin by the thin chrome fluorometric procedure), estimates of rancidity (lipid oxidation status by the thiobarbituric acid test), and surveillance testing (enzyme-linked immunoassays), are presented in this text. In each of these cases, the analytical signal for which the assay is based is either the emission or absorption of radiation in the UV-Vis range. This signal may be inherent in the analyte, such as the absorbance of radiation in the visible range by pigments, or a result of a chemical reaction involving the analyte, such as the colorimetric copper-based Lowry method for the analysis of soluble protein.
Isomerism is a phenomenon where two or more compounds have the same chemical formula but possesses different structural formulas. In isomerism, the existence of molecules that have the same numbers of the same kinds of atoms (and hence the same formula) but differ in chemical and physical properties. Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties. Basically, there are two types of isomerism are Structural Isomerism and Stereoisomerism. Structural Isomerism- Isomers are structural isomers when they have the same molecular formula but different structures, as in how they are linked to each other. The isomers differing in the atomic arrangement of the molecules without any kind of reference to the spatial arrangement are known as the structural isomers. The phenomenon of this structural isomers is called structural isomerism.
Structural isomerism is also called as constitutional isomerism as per the IUPAC. It is a kind of isomerism where the molecules having the same molecular formula with different orders and bondings, as opposed to that of stereoisomerism.
Types of Structural Isomerism, There are three types of Structural isomerism existing namely chain isomerism, position isomerism, and functional group isomerism.
Chain Isomerism: Chain isomerism occurs when there is a difference in the atomic arrangement of the carbon to the carbon chain of a molecule. If two or more compounds having the same type of molecular formula with different main chains, then they are said to exhibit the property of Chain isomerism. This phenomenon is also called as skeletal isomerism.
Position Isomerism: Positional isomerism arises when there is a difference in the positions occupied by the substituent atoms or a group of atoms or due to the unsaturation occurring in the chain. When the position of the functional groups with respect to the main chain atom changes, the phenomenon is called position isomerism.
Functional Group Isomerism: Functional group isomerism occurs when there is a presence of the odd form of functional groups with the same chemical formula. When some compound has two different structures but the same chemical formula, then it is said to exhibit functional isomerism.
X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) is a fundamental analytical technique used by solid-state laboratories across a breadth of disciplines, it is still underrepresented in most undergraduate curricula. In this work, we incorporate XRPD analysis into an inquiry-based project that requires students to identify the crystalline component(s) of familiar household products. Centering the project on materials that students encounter in their everyday lives helps to demystify the technique, making it accessible to everyone with a basic understanding of crystallinity and unit cells. In an XRPD study, each crystalline component generates a unique set of peaks in the diffract gram. Comparing the collected diffractogram to a library of diffractograms for known crystalline materials allows students to identify the crystalline components in their unknown. Students must determine for themselves the chemical compositions of the possible unknowns, and link their findings back to the analysis of the collected data. Initially challenging, this is the part of the work they respond to most strongly. This lab includes a data collection component, but its inquiry-based objectives can still be achieved by providing the students with simulated diffractograms when the appropriate instrumentation is unavailable.