Stem Cell Research
In stem cell transplants, stem cells replace cells damaged by chemotherapy or disease or serve as a way for the donor's immune system to fight some types of cancer and blood-related diseases, such as leukemia, lymphoma, neuroblastoma, and multiple myeloma. These transplants use adult stem cells or umbilical cord blood.
Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine
A cell has the ability to develop into specialized cell types in the body which replace the damaged or lost cells or tissues. Generally, natural stem cells are classified into embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells, and the type of stem cells are reprogrammed in the laboratory are Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Based on the efficiency or potency stem cells are classified into Totipotent, Multipotent, Pluripotent, Oligopotent, Unipotent. Stem cell therapy or regenerative medicine is the treatment method that develops methods to regrow repair or replace damaged or diseased cells, organs, or tissues.
Tissue Engineering and 3D Cell Culture
The procedure in which the cells are grown in an artificial environment separate from the body is called tissue engineering. It is an improvisation of growing cells than methods of 2D cell culture. The cells growing in a 3D artificial environment are more relevant and effective than the cells growing on the 2D surface. The basic method of the 3D cell culture leads to the use of scaffolds which are the engineered materials that leads to cellular interaction in new tissues to be functional
Gene and Cell Therapy
Gene therapy is a way to treat genetic disorders. The variation in gene therapy is focused on somatic gene therapy and germline gene therapy relating to viral and non-viral vectors. T-cells are the type of lymphocyte cells that are developed in the laboratory to attack cancer cells. T-cell therapy is nothing but an immune therapy to treat certain kinds of cancer. Nano therapy is a new trend in the field of medicine which uses nanoparticles to deliver drugs to the targeted body part.
Ageing Theories in Stem Cell
Ageing is the complex process of deterioration of body functions through the involvement of body cells and organs. Basically, the ageing theory can be divided into two types – hematopoietic stem cell ageing and hair follicle stem cell ageing. Besides these two theories, the other theories of ageing are evolutionary theory, cellular theory, system theory, and molecular theory. With ageing the bone marrow cellularity decreases.
Epigenetics and Stem Biology
The study of heritable phenotypic change which does not involve any change or alteration in DNA sequencing is known as Epigenetics. These changes make modifications in certain gene activities like histone modification, adding a methyl group to a part of a DNA molecule. The DNA alterations are not termed genetic, rather they are called epigenetic.
Stem Cell Apoptosis and Signal Transduction
Apoptosis is the cell death that leads to a programming sequence of the elimination of old, unnecessary, unhealthy cells. This process is also known as cell suicide. When a cell commits suicide then the caspases become active. Signal transduction is a process in which the signals are transferred in an organism across the cells. In this process, the proteins have termed the receptors. The protein receptor gets a signal through a primary messenger and then, undergoes conformational changes which change its shape and interact with molecules surrounding it.
Genome Editing Technology
The technology makes specific changes in the DNA of a cell. Genome editing depends on the double-strand DNA break which has two major pathway mechanisms – non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous directed repair (HDR). The genome-editing technology heads with the processes like CRISPR, TALEN, ZNF, and MAGE
Tissue-Engineered Disease Models
Tissue remodeling is a technique of tissue engineering which involves the restoration or reprogramming of tissues. It results in the maintenance and growth of the tissues. The cells which undergo pathological processes in observing the diseases of humans or animals are termed organ models. Tissue engineering makes the improved format of modeling the phenotypes and screening the therapeutic solutions to the particular disease.
Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine research and development
Regenerative medicine is an interdisciplinary field that explores to development of the science and tools that can help to repair or replace damaged or diseased human cells or tissues to restore normal function and holds the ensure of revolutionizing treatment within the 21st century. It may involve the transplantation of stem cells, progenitor cells, or tissue, stimulation of the body's repair processes, or the use of cells as transmission vehicles for therapeutic agents such as genes and cytokines. All the regenerative medicine strategies depend upon exploiting, stimulating, or guiding endogenous development or repair processes. According to some research, somatic cell research plays a central role in regenerative medicine, which also extends the disciplines of tissue engineering, developmental cell biology, cellular therapeutics, gene therapy, biomaterials (scaffolds and matrices), chemical biology, and nanotechnology. Promoting somatic cell research, regenerative medicine, advanced therapeutics, and much more broadly may be a priority for us and the United Kingdom government.