For normal functioning and working of the body the communication between the cells is most important. The receptor cells sends signal which asks the cell what, when and how to function the system. Any change or disturbances in the signalling can immense help in the movement and growth of cancer cells. The cancer cells interfere with the normal functioning of the body and send out signals similar to that of the normal cells hence immune system does not interfere with the cell functioning and growth. During normal chemotherapy due to this phenomenon the normal actively growing cells are also destroyed. Hence cancer cell targeting therapy is being developed hence sparing the normal cells
Breast cancer is the most dominant type of cancer among women worldwide, with almost 500 million deaths related with this cancer type alone.
Human beings suffer from a numerous of disorders caused by biochemical or biophysical alteration of physiological systems leading to organ failure. For a number of these conditions, stem cells and their huge reparative potential may be the last hope for
Brain Tumour occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain. The symptoms of Brain stem tumours vary greatly and can include Ataxia, Cranial Nerve Palsy, headaches, problems with speech and swallowing, hearing loss, weakness, Hemiparesis, vision abnormalities, ptosis, and behavioural changes. Another possible symptom is vomiting. Any brain tumour is inherently serious and life-frightening because of its invasive and infiltrative character in the limited space of the Intracranial Cavity.
Metastasis is well-defined as the process by which Cancer cells spread to other parts of the body. Metastatic Cancer is called as Stage IV cancer among many stages of it. Metastasis is one of the hallmarks of cancer distinguishing it from benign tumours. And it can spread to distant parts of the body.
One of the initial stages in a solid cell turning into a disease cell is the difference in the proto-oncogenes to oncogenes. Proto-oncogenes are qualities that are coded to keep up typical cell development. Oncogenes are a quality that has changed to influence the cells to develop and isolate quicker. In growth cells the cell develops and separates rapidly. The second means to turning into a malignancy cell is the tumour silencer qualities get killed. Tumour silencer makings are a piece of a solid cell’s DNA that assistance prevent disease from shaping in sound cells. Tumour silencer qualities help back off cell development, when these qualities are killed the cell will develop and isolate rapidly. The last advance to turning into a Cancer cell is the DNA repair qualities gets killed. DNA repair qualities enable your sound cells to know whether something isn't right with its DNA and how to settle it.
To diagnose a meningioma, a neurologist will conduct a thorough neurological exam followed by an imaging test, such as: • Computerized tomography (CT) scans. CT scans take X-rays that create cross-sectional images of a full picture of your brain. Sometimes an iodine-based dye is used to augment the picture. • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). With this imaging study, a magnetic field and radio waves are used to create cross-sectional images of the structures within your brain. MRI scans provide a more-detailed picture of the brain and meningiomas.
OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER IS A DISEASE IN WHICH MALIGNANT (CANCER) CELLS FORM IN THE TISSUES OF THE OROPHARYNX. SMOKING OR BEING INFECTED WITH HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS CAN INCREASE THE RISK OF OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER INCLUDE A LUMP IN THE NECK AND A SORE THROAT. TESTS THAT EXAMINE THE MOUTH AND THROAT ARE USED TO HELP DETECT (FIND), DIAGNOSE, AND STAGE OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER. CERTAIN FACTORS AFFECT PROGNOSIS (CHANCE OF RECOVERY) AND TREATMENT OPTIONS.
Radiation Oncology includes all parts of research that impacts on the treatment of disease utilizing radiation. Radiation can be given as a healing methodology, either alone or in mix with medical procedure as well as chemotherapy. It might likewise be utilized palliative, to diminish indications in patients with desperate malignant growths. The Radiotherapy/radiation treatment is comprehensively divided into Teleradiotherapy Branchy-radiotherapy and Metabolic Radiotherapy. Atomic prescription is a part of medication that utilizes radiation to give data about the working of an individual's particular organs or to treat malady. Restorative imaging is the process and procedure of making visual portrayals of the inside of a body for clinical investigation
Precision medicine is the tailoring of medical treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient and his or her disease. Moreover, through the precision medicine approach, the treatment of each patient can be focused on drugs most likely to benefit him or her, sparing the patient the cost and potential harmful side effects from drugs that are unlikely to be beneficial. Oncology has been leading precision medicine efforts largely because of our immense knowledge of the role of genetic mutations in the development and progression of cancer. Precision medicine enables to approach detection, diagnosis and treatment in an in-depth way to regulate how a cancer develops, grows and spreads. • Physiology & Cancer History • Identifying Risk Factors • Cancer Genomics & Biologic Factors • Targeted Agents & Conventional Treatment • New Genotyping Technologies
Stem cell transplantation, sometimes referred to as bone marrow transplant, is a procedure that substitutes unhealthy blood-forming cells with healthy cells. Stem cell transplantation allows doctors to give large doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to Autologous stem cell transplant Allogeneic stem cell transplant Bone marrow transplantation Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Epithelial transplantation
Stem cells are categorized by the ability to self-renew, or divide without senescing, and to differentiate into specific somatic cells. Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into specific cell types. The two defining characteristics of a stem Adult Somatic stem cells Tissue specific stem cells Epidermal stem cells Epithelial stem cells Stem cell transcription factors and regulators
Early detection is always better and can be done through transmission methods. If family history is there for breast cancer, then one should go for the advice of a doctor. Screening methods are medical breast examination (doctors or nurses examine women's breasts for lumps), mammography, and other imaging techniques. If the lump is there in the breast it can be breast cancer. X-rays are taken to closely observe the breast cancer which is known as a mammogram. After lump detection or other sign mammogram is used.
Nuclear medicine is a branch of medicine that makes use of radiation to provide information approximately the functioning of a person's unique organs or to deal with sickness along with the utilization of radioactive materials within the finding and treatment of sickness. It is known as nuclide imaging. Diagnostic techniques in nuclear medicinal drug use radioactive tracers which emit gamma rays from within the body. The gamma camera builds up an image from the factors where the radiation is emitted. This image is enhanced by a computer and viewed by a physician on a monitor for demonstration of abnormal conditions. Single photon emission computed tomography SPECT and Positron Emission Tomography or PET scans are the 2 most common imaging modalities in nuclear medicine. It is used in diagnosis of Huntington, Alzheimer, Parkinson diseases, brain perfusion, myocardial perfusion, tumour detection or metastases.
Cancer or its treatment can lower your resistance to infection and make you more likely to catch the other diseases. There are many different types of cancer drugs. Some drugs can treat cancer and the others help to relieve symptoms such as pain and sickness. The type of drugs you need to use for cure of your cancer depends on what type of cancer you have. Drug therapies work in diverse ways to terminate cancer cells and stop them from spreading or slow down their development. Anticancer drugs or anticancer agents are used in Cancer. Drugs may also be used to reduce or relieve side effects of cancer and its treatment.
There are so many different types of cancer treatments are there with different probable benefits, risks and side effects. Slow-growing blood cancers can be survived by taking daily medication, whereas people with faster-growing acute blood cancers may need stronger (intensive) treatments. A stem cell transplant infuses healthy blood-forming stem cells into the body.
A mastectomy is the evacuation of the majority of the tissue from one or the two bosoms. Mastectomies are principally performed to evacuate or forestall bosom disease. There are different types of mastectomy to deal with different medical situations. • Total (simple) mastectomy • Double mastectomy • Radical mastectomy • Modified radical mastectomy • Skin-sparing mastectomy • Nipple-sparing mastectomy
Oncology is a branch of medication that arrangements with the aversion, finding, and treatment of growth. Distinctive tumours influencing diverse parts of the body e.g. blood cancer, prostate, lungs, platelets (leukaemia) or different organs carry on in various way are of various evaluations and cell write, react constantly to treatment and have diverse arrangement of compelling treatment regimen. An oncologist is a specialist who treats disease. Inside oncology there are a few sub-claims to fame that arrangement with various kinds of disease and blood growth composes or blood cancer types.
Embryonic stem cells are obtained from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. They can give rise to every cell type in the fully formed body, but not the placenta and umbilical cord. These are incredibly valuable because they provide a renewable resource Role of sperm DNA integrity in fertility Embryo implantation Human implantation Atrial cardiac stem cell niche Germ line stem cells niches
There are 2 types of cancer prevention vaccines approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): • HPV vaccine. The vaccine protects against the human papillomavirus (HPV). If the virus is long-lasting, it can cause some types of cancer. The FDA has approved HPV vaccines to prevent o Cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancer o Anal cancer o Genital warts HPV can also cause other cancers the FDA has not approved the vaccine for, such as oral cancer. • Hepatitis B vaccine. This vaccine prevents hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Long-lasting infection with HBV can cause liver cancer. Talk with your health care team about whether you should be vaccinated against HPV and/or HBV.