Stem Cells & Types
Stem cells: An undifferentiated cell of a multicellular organism which is capable of giving rise to indefinitely more cells of the same type, and from which certain other kinds of cell arise by differentiation. Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into specific cell types. The two defining characteristics of a stem cell are perpetual self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into a specialized adult cell type.
Tissue Engineering and 3D Cell Culture
The procedure in which the cells are grown in an artificial environment separate from the body is called tissue engineering. It is an improvisation of growing cells than methods of 2D cell culture. The cells growing in a 3D artificial environment are more relevant and effective than the cells growing on the 2D surface.
Gene and Cell Therapy
Gene therapy is a way to treat genetic disorders. The variation in gene therapy is focused on somatic gene therapy and germline gene therapy relating to viral and non-viral vectors. Nano therapy is a new trend in the field of medicine which uses nanoparticles to deliver drugs to the targeted body part.
Stem Cell Transplants for Cancer Treatment
In a typical stem cell transplant for cancer terribly high doses of chemo are used, sometimes in conjunction with radiotherapy to undertake to kill all the cancer cells. This treatment additionally kills the stem cells within the bone marrow. Soon after treatment, stem cells are given to exchange those that were destroyed. These stem cells are given into a vein, very similar to a blood transfusion.
Recent advances in stem cell biology
A variety of stem cells with different origins and differentiation potency are expected to cure numerous degenerative diseases, chronic diseases, and acute tissue injuries. Recent advances in stem cell biology and stem cell engineering provide a new avenue for pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and directly converted stem-like cells, which are essential resources for disease modeling, drug screening, and cell therapeutics for regenerative medicine.
Clinical Trials on Regenerative Medicine
After many years of basic research, regenerative medicine is now beginning to represent a valuable tool to cure several clinical conditions in both acute injuries and chronic diseases. This study aims to update current clinical applications of some selected organs and pathologies which may benefit from regenerative medicine.
Stem Cells and Veterinary Applications
The stem cell field in veterinary medicine continues to evolve rapidly both experimentally and clinically. Stem cells are most commonly used in clinical veterinary medicine in therapeutic applications for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries in horses and dogs. New technologies of assisted reproduction are being developed to apply the properties of spermatogonial stem cells to preserve endangered animal species. The same methods can be used to generate transgenic animals for the production of pharmaceuticals or use as biomedical models.