Meeting with the world wide expectation, renewable energy has evolved a lot. The use of renewable can be seen in day to day life basically in four areas electricity generation, air and water heating and cooling transportation and rural(off-grid) energy services. The existence of this energy has been find across wide geographical area as compared to other energy sources. Large application of renewable energy has resulted in significant improvement in energy security, climate change mitigation and economic benefits. The use of renewable energy has directed the people to move forward from conventional fuels due to the environmental reasons. Renewable energy can be defines as a form of energy derived from the natural sources which cannot be depleted such as wind or solar power. They are the natural energy present in all forms ranging from sunlight, wind, waves, geothermal heat and tides. There sources are replaced constantly but does not get short. Although there is unlimited supply of the fossil fuels, we should go for the use of renewable energy as it is not only safe for the environment, eco-friendly but also less prone to pollutants if any. The development in renewable technologies has led to human development both way rural and urban. A single form of renewable energy can be further converted into different forms. It won’t be wrong to say that renewable energy is leading to sustainable development.
Solar Energy is the most promptly accessible wellspring of energy. Sun is the sources of all energies, the primary forms of solar energy are heat and light. It doesn't have a place with anyone and is, in this manner, free. It is additionally the most essential of the non-conventional sources of energy. Since it is non-contaminating and along these lines, helps in decreasing the greenhouse impact. Solar energy can likewise be utilized to meet our power prerequisites. Through Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) cells, sunlight based radiation gets changed over into DC power specifically. Solar Energy is dependable progressing at Solar Transport. Fuel production is also done with the help of high temperature from solar energy. The energy is capture, which is produced at one time and is store for future use. Solar energy free and clean energy and the solar panels can be placed on roofs of houses which makes less occupancy.
The wind is a free, clean and gladly available renewable energy source. In the world, every day wind turbines are capturing the wind’s power and converting it to the electricity. The energy from the wind turns the two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor in windmill. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, and this shaft connected with the generator to create electricity. This source of power generation plays a progressively important role in the way of power in our world. Wind turbines captured the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical power. This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain or pumping water) in the turbines generator or can be convert this mechanical power into useful power like electricity. Now wind power technology is showing rapid growth and much more helpful than conventional power generation.by using this wind energy there is no pollution and less space occupancy and less cost effective. Wind turbines don't deliver air discharges that lead to medical issues like asthma or make corrosive rain or nursery gasses which is involves in coal handling plants.
Geothermal Energy and Hydro Energy
Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth and it's a clean and sustainable. Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles under the surface of the earth, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock named magma. There are three main types of geothermal energy systems: Direct use and district heating system and Electricity generation in power plants and geothermal heat pumps. The steam rotates a turbine, than the turbine activates a generator, which produces electricity.in the world, there are many power plants still use fossil fuels to boil water for steam. Geothermal power plants, using the steam, produced from reservoirs of hot water found a couple of miles or more below the Earth's surface. heat exchanger-a system of pipes covered in the shallow ground near the building.
One of the most important and large source of renewable energy, Hydropower contributes to 10% of world electricity generation. The flowing water energy is converted to electricity in the hydropower plants. Most commonly the dam water is used. Flowing water through turbines ii used for the power generation. Although there is no air emission however water quality and wildlife habitats can be affected. Work is going on to design the power plants in such a way that it causes minimum affect to the river water. Undoubtedly it improves the wildlife’s river habitat but at the same time cause the reduction in power plant output. Sometimes this power plant hinders the life of the fishes so different approaches are employed such as fish ladders and improved turbines to assist the migration of fishes and lower their death rate.
One of the most prominent and promising renewable energy Biofuels can be converted directly to the liquid fuels. Biofuels is widely used for the transportation. There are various types of Biofuels such as Ethanol, Biodiesel, Bioalcohols, Green Diesel, and Biofuel gasoline, Vegetable Oil, Bioethers, Biogas, Syngas and Solid Biomass Fuels. Ethanol and Biodiesel are the commonly used biofuels. The main aim for introducing Biofuels was to replace Gasoline, Diesel Fuel and Coal. Green Diesel, Biogas. It is having enormous advantage when compared with the fossil fuels such as less greenhouse gases providing greater fuel securities. The use of Biofuel is widely dependent on the land availability. It is made from biological agents such as plant oils or animal through the set of chemical reactions. One of the major advantages for using the Biofuel is that they are renewable energy and don not lead to global warming unlike the fossil fuels. According to few facts, Biofuels is the only renewable energy which can replace the fossil fuels.
Waste to Energy
Waste-to-energy or energy-from-waste is that the one of the way of generating energy within the type of electricity and heat, from the first treatment of waste, through this the un-useful amount of energy can be considerably utilized. Waste-to-energy may be a type of energy recovery process .Now a days, Most Waste-to-Energy proceeding manufacture electricity and/or heat directly through combustion, or manufacture flammable fuel goods, like gas, alcohol or artificial fuels, methanol. For new processes like the Ebara fluidization, direct smelting method and also the Thermo- select -JFE and melting technology process for waste to energy process there are vast amount of thermal treatment plants victimized. Waste to energy technology includes aging, which may take biomass and make liquor, exploitation squander plastic or natural material. Inside the aging technique, the sugar inside the waste is changed to nursery outflow and the liquor, inside the similar and general strategy, that is wont to assemble wine. Esterification is also should be possible exploitation waste to vitality innovations, and more, the consequences of this technique are biodiesel. The esteem adequacy of esterification can depend on the feedstock being utilized and each one the inverse important variables like transportation remove, amount of oil blessing inside the feedstock can be improved in the waste to energy process.
Power and Energy Engineering
Power Building is a sub field of Vitality Designing and Electrical Designing that courses of action with the age, transmission, scattering and utilization of electric power and the electrical contraptions related with such systems including generators, motors and transformers. Anyway an awesome piece of the field is concerned with the issues of three-stage air conditioning power – the standard for liberal scale control age, transmission and scattering over the front line world – an imperative division of the field is stressed with the change among air conditioning and DC control and the change of specific power frameworks for instance, those used in flying machine or for electric railroad systems. The Power Frameworks were getting more profitable with taking a break and have transformed into a middle district of Electrical Building field.
Ocean and Marine Energy
Marine or sea vitality alludes to the vitality conveyed by sea waves, tides, saltiness, and sea temperature contrasts. The development of water on the planet's seas makes a huge store of active vitality, or vitality in movement. A portion of this vitality can be tackled to create power to control homes, transport and industries.The seas have an unbelievable measure of intensity and vitality potential. Despite the fact that the marine vitality innovation has not completely conveyed on its potential, there has been, in late time, various zones in marine vitality that has commenced. The UK is accepted to be a main player in Marine vitality. Despite the fact that its ability by and by is in general around 9megawatts, it is on course to convey around 120MW by 2020. Two of these are Wave vitality and Tidal Vitality.
One of the most abundant element and high in energy Hydrogen does not occur naturally occur as gas on the Earth. Hydrogen Economy is defined as delivering energy using economy. Hydrogen consists of one atom and one electron. Industrial production of Hydrogen is 4 trillion cubic feet annually. Hydrogen is produced through extraction process called as reforming where heat is applied for the separation of Hydrogen from Carbon. It is transported through the pipeline from its production unit over the road in cryogenic liquid tanker trucks or gaseous tube trailers or rail or barge. However research is going on to produce hydrogen naturally form the natural gas using the process of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel. Hydrogen is used as fuel good as the energy extracted from it is stored and used further. Energy derived from Hydrogen can be delivered to fuel cells and further for the generation of electricity and heat or even for the combustion process. Being good source of energy Hydrogen is also used as fuel for “zero emission’’ vehicles and even fuels the aircraft. Vehicles fuelled with Hydrogen are more energy efficient and use nearly 60% of the fuels energy with 50%reduction in fuel consumption as compared to the conventional vehicle with a gasoline internal combustion. In future, there are chances of using Hydrogen for the electricity generation.
Energy storage and Conservation
The mission of Energy Conservation and Energy Storage (ECES) is to facilitate integral research, development, implementation and integration of energy-storage technologies to enhance the energy efficiency of all kinds of energy system and process and to enable the increasing usage of renewable energy rather than the of fossil fuels. Energy storage and the energy transformation is major part of renewable energy usage system. Depending on the form of energy which needs to be balanced and the required storage period, different types of energy storages such as thermal, electrical, material or virtual storages can be used. A device that stores imperativeness is all over called a gatherer. Vitality comes in different structures including electrical potential, compound, gravitational potential, radiation, control, raised temperature, lethargic warmth and dynamic. Vitality Storage incorporates changing over imperativeness from outlines that are difficult to store to simply more supportively or fiscally storable structures. Mass Energy accumulating is correct presently led by hydroelectric dams, both standard and furthermore pumped. The essentialness isn't secured clearly; anyway the work-aftereffect of exhausting Energy (pumping constantly warm) is secured, having the proportionate effect on daytime use.
Environmental Science and Atmosphere Impacts
Environmental engineering and Environmental science are concentrations on protecting the environment by reducing waste and pollution discipline that takes from broad scientific topics like chemistry, biology, ecology, geology, hydraulics, hydrology, microbiology, and mathematics to create solutions that will protect and also improves the health of living organisms and improve the quality of the environment. To keep our environment clean we will survive in healthy. Environmental engineering is a professional engineering Environmental engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering and chemical engineering to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
Sustainable power source is a standout amongst the best devices we have in the battle against environmental change, and there is each motivation to trust it will succeed. An on-going New York Times segment appears to suggest that sustainable power source speculations set back endeavours to address environmental change—nothing could be further from reality. In addition, inexhaustible innovations can progressively spare clients cash as they uproot discharges from petroleum derivatives.
Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which use electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.
One of the most abundant element and high in energy Hydrogen does not occur naturally occur as gas on the Earth. Hydrogen Economy is defined as delivering energy using economy. Hydrogen consists of one atom and one electron. Industrial production of Hydrogen is 4 trillion cubic feet annually. Hydrogen is produced through extraction process called as reforming where heat is applied for the separation of Hydrogen from Carbon. It is transported through the pipeline from its production unit over the road in cryogenic liquid tanker trucks or gaseous tube trailers or rail or barge. However research is going on to produce hydrogen naturally form the natural gas using the process of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel. Hydrogen is used as fuel good as the energy extracted from it is stored and used further. Energy derived from Hydrogen can be delivered to fuel cells and further for the generation of electricity and heat or even for the combustion process. Being good source of energy Hydrogen is also used as fuel for “zero emission’’ vehicles and even fuels the aircraft. Vehicles fuelled with Hydrogen are more energy efficient and use nearly 60% of the fuels energy with 50%reduction in fuel consumption as compared to the conventional vehicle with a gasoline internal combustion. In future, there are chances of using Hydrogen for the electricity generation