The terms “biological control have been used in different fields of biology In plant pathology, the term applies to the use of microbial antagonists to suppress diseases as well as the use of host-specific pathogens to control weed populations the organism that suppresses the pest or pathogen is referred to as the biological control agent . A wide variety of chemicals called antimicrobial agents are available for controlling the growth of microbes such as Chemotherapeutic agents Disinfectants Antiseptics
The main aim of plant disease management is to reduce the economic and aesthetic damage caused by plant diseases. Traditionally, this has been called plant disease control, but current social and environmental values deem control as being absolute and the term too rigid Disease fungi take their energy from the plants on which they live. They are responsible for a great deal of damage and are characterized by wilting, scabs, moldy coatings, rusts, and blotches and rotted tissue. Removal of diseased plant tissues on the plant itself is your next line of defense. Prune out diseased foliage, twigs or branches, hand pick blighted camellia blossoms as they appear and dispose of these in the trash.
The vegetables including potato, tuber crops, mushroom, has become a key drivers for economic development in many of the states in the country Hence adoption of suitable management measures with low residue levels in the final produces becomes a requirements. Mostly there are two types of diseases which can be seen in vegetables that is due to fungus and bacteria
Crop research might be characterized as action coordinated to making the generation, promoting and utilization of business Crops more proficient and gainful. Consequently, edit research may include any or the majority of the accompanying: Plant Breeding, plant physiology and Biochemistry Yields incorporate grain and Oil seed Crops, Forages, claim to fame crops, Vegetables, Fruits and OrnamentalSeed science is the analysis of the structure and advancement of seeds from the snapshot of treatment of the egg cell on the maternal plant until the point that arrangement of another plant from the seed. Seed science is partitioned into two segments carpology, studies the seeds and products of wild plants, .
Control of plant diseases is largely dependent on use of agrochemicals. However, there are widening gaps between our knowledge on plant diseases gained from genetic/mechanistic studies and rapid translation of the knowledge into target-oriented development of effective agrochemicals. Here we propose that the time is ripe for computer-aided drug discovery in molecular plant pathology. CADD has played a pivotal role in development of medically important molecules over the last three decades. Now, explosive increase in information on genome sequences and three dimensional structures of biological molecules, The strategies of designing a new drug by using bioinformatics implements have opened a brand new location of drug research and development y the use of computational methods and the 3D structural statistics of the protein target
Plant disease epidemiology is the study of disease in plant populations plant diseases occur due to pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, oomycetes, nematodes, phytoplasmas, protozoa, and parasitic plants. Plant disease epidemiologists strive for an understanding of the cause and effects of disease and develop strategies to intervene in situations where crop losses may occur. The study of epidemics and factors influencing them is called epidemiology Plant disease epidemiology studies the spatial and temporal dynamics as well as the ecology of the interaction between populations of plant pathogens, plant hosts, and the environment.
Microorganism–host interactions are the key strategy to colonize and establish in a variety of different environments. These interactions involve all ecological aspects, including physio chemical changes, metabolite exchange, metabolite conversion, signaling, chemotaxis and genetic exchange resulting in genotype selection. In addition, the establishment in the environment depends on the species diversity, since high functional redundancy in the microbial community increases the competitive ability of the community, decreasing the possibility of an invader to establish in this environment. The plant phenotype and ecology can be affected by the impact of the symbiotic microbes on the environment and competition for soil resources.
Mycotoxicology is the branch of mycology that focuses on analyzing and studying the toxins produced by fungi, known as mycotoxins. In the food industry it is important to adopt measures that keep mycotoxins levels as low as practicable especially those that are heat-stable Mycotoxins are made by fungi and are toxic to vertebrates and other animal groups in low concentrations. Low-molecular-weight fungal metabolites such as ethanol that are toxic only in high concentrations are not considered mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are hard to define and are also very difficult to classify. Mycotoxins have diverse chemical structures, biosynthetic origins, myriad biological effects, and produce numerous different fungal species
Root diseases are generally less severe owing to greater soil health, whereas some foliar diseases can be problematic in organic agriculture. The soil microbial community and nitrogen availability play an important role in disease development and yield. Demand for safe and healthy food has been increasing with every passing day. The ill effects of plant protection chemicals on the flora, fauna, humans and environment as a whole are the major concerns. Disease management in OF is largely based on the maintenance of biological diversity and soil health by balanced crop rotations, including nitrogen-fixing and cover crops, intercrops, additions of manure and compost and reductions in soil tillage
Fungi are among the dominant causal agents of plant diseases. To colonize plants and cause disease, pathogenic fungi use diverse strategies. Some fungi kill their hosts and feed on dead material, while others colonize the living tissue For successful invasion of plant organs, pathogenic development is tightly regulated and specialized infection structures are formed. To further colonize hosts and establish disease, fungal pathogens deploy a plethora of virulence factors In contrast, biotrophs utilize effector molecules to suppress plant cell death and manipulate plant metabolism in favor of the pathogen
Molecular breeding is the application of molecular biology tools, often in plant breeding and animal breeding the areas of molecular breeding include Genetic engineering and Genetic transformation Plant breeding is the science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics, One major technique of plant breeding is selection, the process of selectively propagating plants with desirable characteristics and eliminating or culling those with less desirable characteristics. Modern plant breeding may use techniques of molecular biology to select, or in the case of genetic modification, to insert, desirable traits into plants. Application of biotechnology or molecular biology is also known as molecular breeding.
Plant Nutrients are the substance components that are fundamental to the sustenance of plant well being. Plant Nutrients fall into three classes, which are all founded on the sum a plant needs, not the significance of the individual components. Each plant supplement plays out a vital job in plant development and advancement. For plants, soil is important because it has roots that provide plant support and store nutrients. The plants need water and the soil has minerals, while the air has carbon dioxide. The important elements required by plants are macro nutrients and micro nutrients. Soil quality is a major factor in the distribution and growth of plants. Loam soil is the best soil for the plants, as it contains a nice balance of silt, sand, and clay along with humus
Plant pathology is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens and environmental conditions. Organisms that cause infectious disease include fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasma, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants. Weed Science is the study of vegetation management in agriculture, aquatics, horticulture, right-of-way, essentially anywhere plants need to be managed. It involves the study of all the tools available for this purpose such as cropping systems, herbicides, and management techniques and seed genetics. However, it is not just the controlling of plants, but the study of these plants.
Plant protection is the practice of managing weather, weeds, pests and diseases that damage or inhibit the growth of fruit, vegetable and other horticultural crops Proper crop protection is important to produce higher quality crops with minimal wastage. This increase in productivity leads to less land, water and labour being required for food crops Plant protection measures are carried out to limit performance and yield losses in crop production during the growing season and afterwards storage protection as well as for quarantine purposes. They serve primarily to safeguard yields, although in combination with other cultivation measures they can also help to raise yields.
Plant tissue culture involves excising plant tissues and growing them on nutrient media. It is used rather broadly to include several variations, such as meristem culture for propagation of virus-free plants, protoplast culture, cell suspension culture, tissue and organ culture, and anther or pollen culture for producing haploid plants. Plant tissue culture technology is being widely used for large scale plant multiplication. Plant tissue culture techniques have in recent years, become of major industrial importance in the area of plant propagation, disease elimination, plant improvement and production of secondary metabolites plant tissue culture is considered to be the most efficient technology for crop improvement by the production of somaclonal and gametoclonal variants.
Field of plant pathology that deal with the study of viruses & virus like pathogens and diseases caused by organisms and it employs all the principles and practices of plant pathology Many plant pathogens, particularly fungi, can be controlled by the application of chemicals which interfere in some way with the metabolism of the invading pathogen, and so prevent or ameliorate disease. Some of the viral diseases in plants area Morphology, Pathogen Biology and it can be controlled by Chemical Applications Genetic Host Resistance Cultural Practices Scouting cutting, grafting or propagating seedlings vegetatively and Biological control
Plant protection products play an important but indirect role in the regulation of soil erosion. The most widely practiced measure to reduce soil erosion is a reduction or elimination of tillage of the soil surface most agricultural management strategies and external inputs can cause changes in the measured variables, whether they represent the amount, activity, or diversity of soil organisms One of the essential regulating services provided by soils is the filtering and buffering of substances in soil water and the transformation of contaminants and Toxicology deals with the branch of science concerned with the nature, effects, and detection of poisons. The measurement and analysis of potential toxins, intoxicating or banned substances, and prescription medications present in a person's body.
Symbiotic simply means a close, prolonged association between two or more different organisms of different species. There are actually five different types of symbiotic relationships: Parasitism, commensalism, mutualism, neutralism, and competition of these, parasitism and mutualism are the most common relationships formed by fungi. Parasitism is when one species negatively affects the second species in the relationship
Basic biology of plant pathogens and microbes, to develop methods for the management of microbial diseases of plants and other organisms, it is a wide field ranging from sustainable agriculture to toxicology to genetics and molecular biology-related majors. It includes Microbial Pathology,, Clinical Pathology, Diagnostic Pathology, Anatomical and Forensic Pathology, Comparative Pathology. and microorganisms possess membrane-bound are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include Bacteria and Archaea and include are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include Bacteria and Archaea Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology and Phycology, Medical Parasitology, Nematology and Proto-zoology, Food Microbiology, Molecular Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology, Agricultural Microbiology, Soil and Water Microbiology, Industrial Microbiology, Veterinary Microbiology, Microbiology and Microbes World, Microbial genomes and Physiology, Microbial Immunology and Infection Control, Current and future trends in Microbiology.
Antibiotics are essential for control of bacterial diseases of plants, especially fire blight of pear and apple and bacterial spot of peach. Streptomycin is used in several countries; the use of oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and gentamicin is limited to only a few countries. Springtime antibiotic sprays suppress pathogen growth on flowers and leaf surfaces before infection; after infection, antibiotics are ineffective. Antibiotics are applied when disease risk is high, and consequently the majority of orchards are not treated annually. Antimicrobials originated from microorganisms isolated from the environment . Most applications are by spray treatments in orchards. No new antimicrobials are expected to be used in plant agriculture because of high costs of development, regulatory constraints, and environmental and human health concerns. Alternatives to antimicrobials, such as bio control agents, transgenic plants, and novel chemicals, are being developed and marketed.
Agricultural biotechnology, also known as agritech, is an area of agricultural science involving the use of scientific tools and techniques, including genetic engineering, molecular markers, molecular diagnostics, vaccines, and tissue culture, to modify living organisms: plants, animals, and microorganisms. Crop biotechnology is one aspect of agricultural biotechnology which has been greatly developed upon in recent times. Desired traits are exported from a particular species of Crop to an entirely different species. These transgene crops possess desirable characteristics in terms of flavor, color of flowers, growth rate, size of harvested products and resistance to diseases and pests.