Probiotics are live microorganisms and yeasts that are good for you, especially your digestive system. We usually think of these as germs that cause diseases. Prebiotics are classified as the non-digestible food ingredients but probiotics can feed off. They are used in the gut to growth populations of healthy bacteria. Prebiotics and probiotics both support the body structure and preserving a healthy colony of bacteria which supports the gut and aids digestion.
Antibiotics are the most important medicines for treating bacterial infections in both humans and animals. Unfortunately many of the bacteria which cause these infections are becoming resistant to surviving antibiotics. The more we use antibiotics, the more resistant bacteria become.
Environmental biotechnology might be associated with the implementation of action when one tries to connect biological process for commercial uses and exploitation. Environmental biotechnology is a system of scientific knowledge related to the use of microorganisms and their products in the prevention of environmental pollution through bio-treatment of solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes.
Industrial microbiology is primarily associated with the commercial exploitation of microorganisms. Microorganisms are used in industrial processes and products that are of major economic, environmental and expressive consequentiality throughout the world.
Bacteria are single cell microorganisms which lack nuclear membrane. These are metabolically active in nature and cause of diseases to living organisms. Study of these bacteria is called as bacteriology. It is also deals with the studies of morphology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria. Preliminary advantage of bacteriology is helpful in the identification and characterization of bacteria which is associated with the infectious diseases. Major advantages of this bacteriology are useful in the development of the vaccines and antibiotics.
Variations and changing lifestyle have also led to the development of new threats and hazards to public health from simple infections to life taking dangers. Health authorities depend on both research labs and medical consultants for information on the occurrence of these circumstances. An infectious disease is a professional of internal medicine, well skilled on studying and highly equipped in treating the infectious diseases. Experts have knowledge in contaminations of the heart, lungs, brain, bones, pelvic organs, and urinary tract. Their thorough research and activity focuses on all kinds of infections, including those instigated by bacteria, fungi, virus and parasites. Infectious disease specialists also get extra training regarding how infections spread, how the body fights, reacts and responds to the infection caused, and infection control and prevention.
Pediatrics is a branch of medicine which deals with and comprises the medical care and treatment of new borns, infants and children with an age limit from 0-18 i.e. from birth till 18 years of age. Pediatric infectious diseases are diseases which are caused due to pathogens from bacteria, fungi, viruses and other pathogens. These kinds of pathogens infect the well-being of children and make them unhealthy, ill and sick causing several harms and dangers. These infections may lead to Influenza, Cholera, Diarrhea, vomiting tendencies in babies. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RVS) and Sepsis is very common and contagious form of infections in babies. When the infection level goes to the extreme, it disturbs the sleeping pattern and food in-taking capacity of babies projecting them with pain, unease and difficulties.
Oral microbiology is the study of the microorganisms of the oral cavity and their interactions between oral microorganisms or with the host.The collective function of microbial communities is a major driver of dysbiosis and ultimately health or disease. Despite different a etiologies, periodontitis and caries are each driven by a feed forward loop between the microbiota and host factors (inflammation and dietary sugars, respectively) that favor’s the emergence and persistence of dysbiosis.
It is a combined genetic material of the microorganisms, which is living in all the vertebrates. The human microbiome has approximately 100 trillion microbes, which live in our body. The host genome is relatively constant and the other side the microbiome is vigorous and changes with rapid development. This changes mostly occurs in infancy and early childhood. The relationship between changes in microbiome diseases pathological process is undetermined. The main challenge is to recognize whether microbial imbalance is related to disease and able to distinguish between cause and effect.
Marine microbiology in the study of microorganisms and non-organismic microbes that exits in saltwater environments, in the open ocean, coastal waters, in marine surfaces. Marine microbiology is the science that deals with microscopic living organisms in fresh or salt water systems. It is a process which has to do with marine environment. Microbiology is used to protect the marine organisms from harmful diseases underwater. Then the control of seasonal production and reproduction in farm animals has become major research goals. The applications of biotechnology to fish farming and fish production are numerous and valuable in both and environmental terms. Then the growing demand for fish products, biotechnology can help in the development of high quality, economical produce, thereby reducing pressure in natural population.
Clinical Microbiology is a branch of medical sciences, which are mainly deals with the diagnosis and prevention of infectious diseases. Moreover, in this field of science is concerned about the various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health. When the laboratory plays a key role in patient care by providing by the cause of infection and antimicrobial susceptibility data to physicians. The rapid diagnosis of pathogens is an important for initiate effective antibiotic administration and improving the level of treatment. There are various testing methods used to identify and isolate the microbes.
Hepatitis is commonly caused by viral infection. Acute viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by infection with hepatitis viruses. Based upon the causative organisms hepatitis is classified into 5 different types, those are hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Each type of hepatitis infection was affected by different microorganisms.
Mycology is the branch of biology, which are mainly used to the study of fungi including the genetic and biochemical properties, along with the taxonomy used to human source for food and medicines. A person specialize in mycology is called as mycologist. Apart from pathogenic fungi, many fungal species plays a vital role in controlling the plant diseases caused by different pathogens. Now a day mycology became a important science in agricultural industry. Fungi produce negative effect for many crops, but these will helps the plant to get nutrients and water from the soil. Some kinds of fungi are used as pesticides which can kill harmful insects. The field of mycology is develops continuously and became an interested field for researchers.
Lung infections are most common medical conditions, mainly caused by microbial infections and genetic reasons. Major lung infections are acute bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia and tuberculosis. Infections occur when bacteria, viruses and fungi reaches in a person’s air sacs and begin to grow. Then the air sacs become filled with pus and fluid, which make breathing more difficult and causes different infections. Main symptoms are fever, increased breathing rate, cough and rarely chest pain.
Medical microbiology, in the large subset of microbiology that applied to medicine. This is the branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. In this field of science studies various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health. There are four kinds of microorganism that cause infectious disease bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses and one type of infectious protein called prion.
Applied and Environmental Science (AES) is well covered in the platform of applied microbiology. The most exciting findings in this field in the last few years will be presented including recent, game-changing discoveries of microbial players and physiologies in the major Biogeochemical Cycles, Microbial Interactions, Electromicrobiology and Syntheticmicrobiology.
Microbial genetics is the full study of genetic information of microorganisms i.e. bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa. It is a branch of microbiology, which is used to collect complete information about the particular microorganisms. Microbial genetics deals with the gene expression and genotypes. Genotype is the genetic constitution of an individual organism, are used in recombinant DNA technology.
As mentioned above, not every microbe is hazardous to health rather some are helpful in keeping a healthy digestive system, in diary factories, bakeries and so on but to all those who bring alternations in healthy and well-being conditions of human beings are termed as pathogens or the harmful ones.
The immune system of human beings is classified into two categories, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. There are major differences between the two divisions, but they share some cell functions and components. All living organisms are subjected to get attacked from disease-causing agents or pathogens. This process of protection gets more sophisticated as organisms become more complex. Multicellular animals have devoted cells or tissues to deal with infection. Other rejoinders are slower but are more adapted to the infecting agent. Jointly, these protections are known as the immune system. The main portions of the immune system are: the natural barriers, nonspecific cells, and nonspecific molecules. In addition, response of immune system towards invasion of microorganism depends on many factors, such as nutrition, general health, age, and genetic makeup of any human host.
Neglected tropical sicknesses (NTDs) are a miscellaneous collection of tropical contaminations which are particularly common in low-income inhabitants in emerging regions of Africa, Asia, and America. They are instigated by a variety of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths. These diseases are distinguished with big three diseases (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria), which usually receive better treatment and investigation funding. In sub-Saharan Africa, the consequence of these diseases as a group is like tuberculosis and malaria. Neglected tropical sicknesses co-infection can also make HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis deadlier.