Viruses are small particles of genetic material that are surrounded by a protein coat. Some viruses also have a fatty "envelope" covering. They cannot reproducing on their own. Viruses depend on the host organisms they infect for their survival. Viruses get a bad rap, and they also perform many important functions for humans, plants, animals, and the environment.
Bacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms that live almost everywhere. Bacteria live in every climate and location on earth. Some are airborne while others live in water or soil. Bacteria live on and inside plants, animals, and people. The word "bacteria" has a negative connotation, but bacteria actually perform many vital functions for organisms and in the environment.
Fungal Infectious diseases are often caused by fungi that are common in the environment. Most fungi are not dangerous, but some types can be harmful to health. Mild fungal skin diseases can look like a rash and are very common. Fungal diseases in the lungs are often similar to other illnesses such as the flu or tuberculosis. Some fungal infections like fungal meningitis and bloodstream infections are less common than skin and lung infections but can be deadly.
Emerging diseases are infections that have recently appeared within a population or those whose incidence or geographic range is rapidly increasing or threatens to increase in the near future. Emerging infections can be caused by 1: Undetected or unknown infectious agents 2: Known agents that have spread to new geographic locations or new populations 3: Previously known agents had a specific diseases has previously gone unrecognized. 4: Re-emergence of agents whose incidence of disease had significantly declined in the past, but whose incidence of disease has reappeared. This type of diseases is known as re-emerging infectious diseases.
Infectious diseases continue to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The new approaches that are needed to deal with this increasing threat from the integration of two of the most active areas 1: Manipulation of Immune defence. 2: Attack the mechanism of microbes.
Respiratory tract infection refers to a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract. An infection of this type is normally further classified as an Upper respiratory tract infection (URI or URTI) or a lower respiratory tract infection (LRI or LRTI). Lower respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, can cause more serious conditions than upper respiratory infections, such as the common cold.
Tropical diseases encompass all diseases that occur solely in the tropics. In practice, the term is often taken to refer to infectious diseases that thrive in hot, humid conditions, such as malaria, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, and dengue.
The infectious disease epidemiology encompasses domestic and global work on the epidemiology of emerging and re-emerging infections, global infectious disease threats, disease surveillance, disease detection, development of vaccines and other prevention methods, clinical trials, and the role of infectious pathogens in the pathogenesis of chronic non-communicable diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. The broad range to search the novel pathogens using advanced molecular techniques to longitudinal population based studies to define transmission dynamics and spectrum of disease and survival. Approaches are employed in an interdisciplinary fashion to define etiology, pathogenesis, transmission, and prevention/treatment potential.
Dermatology is the branch deals with the hair, nails and skin illness. Human skin goes about as an organic shield against professional oxidative synthetic and physical air toxins; the delayed presentation to large amounts of these contaminations may have significant negative impacts on the skin. Exposing the skin to air poisons has been connected with skin maturing and provocative or unfavourably susceptible skin conditions, for example, atopic dermatitis, dermatitis, psoriasis or skin break out, while skin growth is among the most genuine impacts. Air toxins in the environment can be hurtful to wellbeing, not everybody understands that indoor poisons can bring about extreme issue and different genuine medical problems also.
There are a number of infections and cancers that can develop in people who are living with HIV. There are infections that can be life threatening. These are also known as opportunistic infections. The more common life-threatening infections include a lung infection called Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), an eye infection caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), a brain infection called toxoplasmosis, and a generalized infection called Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Cancers that are more common include Hodgkin’s lymphoma, lung cancer, skin cancer, anal cancer, cervical and vaginal cancer in women, and testicular and prostate cancer in men. These cancers can often be successfully treated if they occur in people with HIV who maintain healthy immune systems with HIV treatment.
Viral and immune mediated disorders of the nervous system are the most challenging neurological disorders. The most common Neuro-immune disorder are multiple sclerosis, and HIV is the most common viral infection of the nervous system. Both disorders play a prominent role in progressive loss of neurons, resulting in significant cognitive and motor dysfunction. A major focus is to understand the pathophysiology of neuronal injury associated with these disorders to develop new diagnostic markers, therapeutic targets, and new areas of research applicable to other neurodegenerative diseases.
Obstetrics and gynaecology is a broad branch of medicine, including surgery, management of the care of pregnant women, gynaecologic care, oncology, and primary health care for women.
Ophthalmology and visual sciences deals with the research and the treatment of various eye disorders. The use of most advanced diagnostic procedures and treat the disorders are used in a effective manner. The researchers and scientists in this field are also involved in the discovery of several innovative approaches that has the capability of treating various eye-related diseases and conditions.
Infections are a common part of childhood, but some infections ail children for long periods of time potentially their entire lives or have very serious symptoms like acute and chronic infectious diseases that need specialized treatment. Pediatric Infectious Diseases is the branch of medicine that deals diagnosis, control and treatment of infections in infants, children, and adolescents.
Pandemic, epidemic and endemic infectious diseases are united by a common problem to identify potential pharmacological interventions to treat infections. The large numbers of emerging and neglected infectious diseases are badly affecting the poorest members of the global society; new ways are required to develop high productivity discovery systems that can be applied to a large number of pathogens. The basis for developing methods to prioritize a priori potential drug targets analyzes the pharmacological landscape of an infectious disease.
An investigation of key characteristics of viruses, bacteria and other micro-organisms causing infections in humans. The mechanisms by which micro-organisms cause disease and evade the immune system are considered. It then explores the principle components of the immune system, describing the molecules and cells that protect against infection and cancer, and their contribution to innate and adaptive immune responses. The role of the immune system in disease is illustrated with examples of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions.
Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medications in modern medicine. Antibiotics cure disease by killing or injuring bacteria. The first antibiotic was penicillin, discovered accidentally from a mold culture. Today, over 100 different antibiotics are available to cure minor and life-threatening infections.
Vaccination against bacterial and viral diseases is an integral part of communicable disease control worldwide. Vaccination against a specific disease not only reduces the incidence of that disease, it reduces the social and economic burden of the disease on communities. High immunization can lead to complete blocking of transmission for many vaccine preventable diseases (VPD). The worldwide eradication of smallpox and the near eradication of polio from many countries provide excellent examples of the role of immunization in disease control.
A case study, explores the biology of different infectious diseases, covering a variety of topics including the virus, infection, replication, mutation, immune responses, pathology, surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment.
Biomedical engineering is a new area of research in medicine and biology, providing new concepts and designs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various diseases. There are several types of biomedical engineering, such as tissue, genetic, neural and stem cells, as well as chemical and clinical engineering for health care. Many electronic and magnetic methods and equipments are used for the biomedical engineering such as Computed Tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, Electroencephalography (EEG), Ultrasound and regenerative medicine and stem cell cultures, preparations of artificial cells and organs, such as pancreas, urinary bladders, liver cells, and fibroblasts cells of foreskin and others.
A rare disease, also referred to as an orphan disease, is any disease that affects a small percentage of the population. Most rare diseases are genetic, and are present throughout a person's entire life, even if symptoms do not immediately appear. In Europe a disease or disorder is defined as rare when it affects less than 1 in 2000 citizens. Rare diseases are characterised by a wide diversity of symptoms and signs that vary not only from disease to disease but also from patient to patient suffering from the same disease.