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Sessions

Dec 06-07, 2021    Dubai, UAE

International Conference on

Central Nervous System

Sessions

Neurophysiology is the combined study of Physiology and Neuroscience which deals with the functioning of the central nervous system. The nervous system includes the brain, the spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs. Various tools are used for this study such as electrophysiological recordings like patch clamp, voltage clamp etc. Medical doctors who are trained in neurology are called Neurophysiologists. They have a great contribution to the society in bringing about innovations and cures to patients suffering from neurological disorders.

There are many subfields of neuroscience. One of them is Cognitive neuroscience. It deals with the study of the processes of human cognitive behaviour. This involves the relation between brain structure, activity and cognitive functions. It aims to determine the functioning of brain and its performance. Cognitive neuroscience is a part of both psychology as well as neuroscience. Over the years various technologies have developed that measures the brain activity land also provide knowledge into behavioural observations. Computational neuroscience and neurobiology also plays a major role in supporting cognitive neuroscience. There are also subfields under cognitive neuroscience.

  • Cognitive Psychology
  • Social cognitive neuroscience
  • Experimental methods
  • Recent trends
  • Cognitive biology
  • Neuroscience and cognitive science

The study of the biological basis of behaviour in humans and animals is referred to as behavioural neuroscience. This field studies the neurotransmissions in the brain as well as the psychological events that occur as a result of biological activity. It is a more recent extension of Physiological Psychology that encompasses a wide variety of subjects, including the genetic and molecular biological substrates of behaviour. The source of knowledge that produces, influences, and coordinates processes like perception, behaviour, reaction, and decision-making is studied in studies based on rigorously obtained empirical evidence. To calculate the activity in an organism's nervous system and its relationship to a behavioural variable, a number of methods are used, ranging from genetic engineering to electroencephalography (EEG). Behavioral science research advances our ability to evaluate, consider, anticipate, change, and monitor human behaviour, enabling us to solve a wide range of problems that our society faces. The study of behavioural neuroscientists has strengthened our understanding of a variety of subjects, including the neurobiology of addiction, ageing, sleep, and trauma.

The study of psychological and neurological disorders is known as neuropsychiatry. It includes research into the neurological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders, the psychiatric manifestations of neurological disorders, and/or the assessment and treatment of people with neurologically related behavioural disorders. Neuropsychiatrists are usually trained in evaluation, differential diagnosis, prognosis, pharmacological treatment, psychosocial management and neurorehabilitation of patients with complex conditions. Cognitive deficits and behavioural changes that are related to brain are evaluated to find out the disorder of patients.

Developmental neuroscience is that Sub field of neuroscience that deals with the study of the development of nervous system. It starts right from the study of simple invertebrates to the more complex humans. Along with the development it also is interested in dysfunction, pathologies, trauma and aging. Computer modelling, traditional biological methods as well as animal studies are used. Animal studies are mostly used to understand the development in the neural system of the humans. Critical developmental stages are studied. The functions of various parts of the brain were originally understood by the developmental neuroscience.

The role of genetics in the development and function of the nervous system is studied in neurogenetics. It treats neural features as phenotypes (i.e., observable or not manifestations of an individual's genetic make-up) and is focused on the observation that individuals' nervous systems, including those belonging to the same species, may not be identical. As the name suggests, it combines elements from both neuroscience and genetics research, with a specific emphasis on how an organism's genetic code determines its expressed traits. Mutations in this genetic sequence may have a wide range of consequences for an individual's quality of life. Neurogenetics is used to study neurological disorders, behaviour, and personality. Neurogenetics originated in the mid- to late-nineteenth century, with developments closely accompanying technological advancements. Neurogenetics is currently the subject of a great deal of cutting-edge study.

Clinical neuroscience is a subfield of neuroscience that studies the basic processes underlying diseases and disorders of the brain and central nervous system.  Its aim is to come up with new ways of conceptualising and diagnosing certain diseases, as well as new therapies. A clinical neuroscientist is a scientist who specialises in the area of neuroscience. Medical neuroscientists are not all physicians. Clinicians and scientists, such as physicians, neurologists, clinical psychologists, neuroscientists, and other experts, develop diagnostic approaches based on fundamental research results from neuroscience in general and clinical neuroscience in particular. Addiction, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, brain tumours, depression, Down syndrome, dyslexia, epilepsy, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, neurological AIDS, neurological trauma, pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia are examples of such disorders.

Neurosurgery is much more than brain surgery. It is a medical procedure that is done on patients diagnosed with injury or disease of the brain, spinal cord and spinal column and peripheral nerves all throughout the body. It is done on both adults and children. Depending on the nature and severity of the disease surgical care is given. The surgery is done by neurological surgeons. They are not only brain surgeons but also medically trained neurosurgical specialists who can also help patients with back and neck pain as well as other illnesses.

The use of different techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function, or pharmacology of the nervous system is known as neuroimaging or brain imaging. Within medicine, neuroscience, and psychology, it is a relatively modern discipline. Neuroradiologists are physicians who specialise in conducting and interpreting neuroimaging in a clinical setting. Structural imaging, which deals with the structure of the nervous system and the diagnosis of gross (large scale) intracranial disease (such as a tumour) and injury, is one form of neuroimaging. The transmission of information by brain centres, for example, can be visualised directly using functional imaging. The involved region of the brain increases metabolism and "lights up" on the scan as a result of this processing. The study of "thought identification" or "mind-reading" is one of the most contentious applications of neuroimaging.

Neuroscience, like science in general, progresses by paradigm changes that alter hypotheses, techniques, and methods radically. Hebbian learning, neuroplasticity, functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain-machine interfaces, and optogenetics, to name a few, have all played a role in revolutionising our understanding of how the brain functions.

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