Surgery, is a part or branch of medicine that is considered with the treatment of wounds or injuries, diseases and different issue by manual and instrumental methods. It involves in the management of acute injuries. Surgery can include cutting, rubbing, suturing, or generally physically changing body tissues and organs. Some common type of surgeries are Appendectomy, Breast biopsy, Carotid endarterectomy, Cataract surgery, Cesarean area, Tonsillectomy, and some surgical procedures are Elective surgery, Exploratory surgery, Minimally-obtrusive surgery, Amputation, Laser surgery, Robotic surgery. Surgery more often than not ranges minutes to hours, yet it is regularly not a progressing or occasional kind of treatment. Anesthesia is a medicinal treatment that keeps patients from inclination torment during medical procedure. It enables individuals to have methodology that lead to more beneficial and longer lives. Consistently, a great many Americans securely experience medical procedure with anesthesia. To deliver anesthesia, specialists use medications called soporifics.
Plastic surgery is a careful rebuilding, recreation, or adjustment of the human body. The term plastic surgery is gotten from the Greek 'to shape or form' and alludes to that field of surgery which reproduces imperfections brought about by injury, malignant growth expulsion, consumes or illness forms. These distortions might be inherent or obtained, restorative or practical. It quite often utilizes a skin unite, either from the patient or from a benefactor. It is a forte that is utilized for both stylish and practical purposes as in reconstructive medical procedure for consumes, awful wounds, inherent or formative variations from the norm, disease and malignant growth. An expert in this field is a plastic specialist
Cosmetic Surgery, likewise alluded to asaesthetic procedure, also referred to asaesthetic surgery, is a surgical procedure which endeavours to improve the physical aspects of one's appearance to become more aesthetically pleasing . Cosmetic surgery is also alluded to plastic surgery that aims to improve a person's appearance, but it should be with caution and the Patients are more likely to experience psychological issues or mental issue, such as depression and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Cosmetic surgery enhances the appearance through surgical and medical techniques that can be performed on all areas of the head, neck and body and this surgery is elective that focuses on the aesthetics of beauty.
Trauma surgery is a careful strength that uses both employable and non-usable administration to treat traumatic wounds, commonly in an intense setting. Trauma specialists for the most part total residency preparing in General Surgery and regularly partnership preparing in trauma or careful basic consideration. Traumatology may likewise be known as mishap or accident surgery. Burns are brought about by an assortment of outside sources delegated warm (heat-related), substance, electrical, and radiation.Liquor abuse and smoking are other hazard factors. Major burns can prompt disease, stun and even demise. That depends on the profundity of damage. The profundity of a consume is normally decided by means of examination, in spite of the fact that a biopsy may likewise be utilized. Most burns are because of warmth from hot fluids, solids, or fire. Burns maybe happen because of self damage or brutality between individuals.
Microsurgery is a general term for surgery have been created to permit anastomosis of progressively littler veins and nerves which have permitted move of tissue starting (free tissue transfer) with one piece of the body then onto the next and re-connection of disjoined parts(Replantation) and also Treatment for Infertility. This surgery is involved in general , ophthalmology, orthopedic , gynecological , otolaryngology, neuro, oral and maxillofacial , plastic, and pediatric surgeries. Reconstructive microsurgery is a careful surgery in which specific working microscopes and other accuracy instrumentation are utilized to fix mind boggling structures. This surgery has had a noteworthy effect to reestablish structure and capacity to people debilitated by injury, malignant growth and inherent irregularities. Microsurgical recreation is regularly saved for complex reconstructive surgery issues when different choices (essential conclusion, skin uniting, neighborhood or local fold move) are lacking.
Orthopedic Surgery is a claim to fame managing intense wounds, inherent and procured issue and constant ligament or abuse states of the bones, joints and their related delicate tissues, including tendons, nerves and muscles. Most experts work close by general specialists in crisis injury managing hard and delicate tissue wounds conceded through their nearby An and E Departments. By far most likewise have an expert enthusiasm for a specific orthopedic condition including the accompanying: Joint reproduction Specific anatomical locale (eg arm) Spine (close by neurosurgeons) Bone tumor medical procedure Rheumatoid medical procedure Sport medical procedure Complex trauma medical procedure Pediatric orthopedics require distinctive crack treatment because of developing bones and restorative treatment for youth deformations.
Gastric bypass surgery alludes to a surgery where the stomach is partitioned into a small upper pouch and an a lot bigger lower "remnant " pocket and after that the small intestine is rearranged to connect to both. Specialists have built up a few unique approaches to reconnect the digestive system, in this manner prompting a few distinctive gastric bypass (GBP)surgery. Any GBP prompts a stamped decrease in the practical volume of the stomach,accompained by an altered physiological and physical reaction or response to food . GBP prescribed to treat morbid obesity type 2 diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, GBP reduces the size of the stomach over 90%. A usual or normal stomach can stretch or extend, sometimes to more than 1000 mL, while the pouch of the GBP might be 15 mL in size . complications of GBP include Anastomotic spillage, Anastomotic stricture ,Anastomotic ulcer Dumping disorder, nutrional deficiency include Iron ,Vitamin B12 , hyperparathyroidism zinc lack, Protein hunger, thiamine . Gastric Bypass and Bilio-pancreatic diversion results in control/ cure of diabetes. With the patients having BMI greater than 35 GBP surgery should be done by making only small incisions (cuts) into the abdomen .Advantages of utilizing those techniques incorporate that patients don't need to remain in the emergency clinic as they have less pain and it doesn't take as long to recover, and the scars are smaller. Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by restricting the amount of food the stomach can hold, causing malabsorption of nutrients, or by a combination of both gastric restriction and malabsorption. Bariatric procedures also often cause hormonal changes. Most weight loss surgeries today are performed using minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic surgery).
Otorhinolaryngology also called otolaryngology (head and neck surgery) is a surgirical subspecialty in the medicine that deals with the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) conditions and related structures of the head and neck. With latest or recent advances in itechnology , including the nasal endoscope, nose or sinus surgery is performed completely through the nose, without face or mouth incisions .now a days , endoscopic sinus surgery is done with minimal nasal packing mild pain and also with short recovery time . Nasal Disorders like Surgical navigation and Intraoperative Imaging, Endoscopic applications in orbital Surgery, Somnoplasty, septoplasty. minimal Invasive Approaches include Transoral Robotic Surgery (TORS) for Head and Neck Cancers , Image-Guided Surgery and Alternatives to Surgery are Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTP) Laser Procedure .
Transplant surgery is the careful evacuation of an organ(s), tissue, or blood items from a benefactor and precisely setting or mixing them into a recipient.Transplant medical procedure is a treatment alternative for infections or conditions that have not improved with other therapeutic medications and have prompted organ disappointment or damage. Transplant medical procedure is commonly saved for individuals with end-arrange sickness who have no different alternatives. The choice to perform transplant surgery depends on the patient's age, general physical condition, finding and phase of the sickness. Transplant medical procedure isn't prescribed for patients who have liver, lung, or kidney issues; poor leg dissemination; malignant growth; or perpetual diseases.
Pediatric surgery is characterized as the analytic, usable, and postoperative careful consideration for youngsters with inherent and procured irregularities and sicknesses, be they formative, provocative, neoplastic or horrible. The extent of this control would concentrate particularly on careful issues in utero, earliest stages, youth, puberty, and some of the time, youthful adulthood. Certain determinations would require broadened association of the pediatric specialist during adulthood as the patient changes to grown-up specialists and suppliers.
Cardiovascular Surgery is medical procedure on the heart or extraordinary vessels performed via cardiovascular specialists. It is regularly used to treat intricacies of ischemic coronary illness (for instance, with coronary corridor sidestep uniting); to address innate coronary illness; or to treat valvular coronary illness from different causes, including endocarditis, rheumatic coronary illness, and atherosclerosis. It likewise incorporates heart transplantation.
Artificial intelligence (AI) in medicinal or health care services is the utilization of complex algorithms and software to assess human awareness in the investigation of complicated medical information or data. In particular, AI is the capacity for computer algorithms to an exact conclusion without direct human input. The goal of health-related AI applications is to analyze connections between aversion or treatment techniques and patient outcomes. Smart Tissue Autonomous Robot is Autonomous Robot will open an or wealth abundance of possibilities .Smart Tissue Autonomous Robot (STAR) has indicated predominant efficiency, accuracy or precision and reproducible compared with surgeons . It also out preformed human specialists or surgeons in a progression of ex- vivo and in-vivo careful task. Future Autonomous surgical robots will have capacity to ''see,' think,'' and ''act'' without active human intervention to accomplish a predetermined surgical goal securely and effectively. Surgical robot characterizes autonomy as ''a capacity or ability to perform intended tasks dependent on current state and detecting without human intervention.'' The advancement of tools , for example, algorithmic clinical decision support (CDS)within the surgery, with access to huge and varied stores of huge information , supported by the utilization of a mix of multi parametric information, permits cross‐talk between information stores and computer system that could give a elagant solution mostly in Oncological practice etc,. Robot can be used as it 1.may not harm a person, or, through inaction, permit an individual to come to hurt 2.must comply with the requests given it by individuals aside from where such requests would struggle with the First Law 3.must secure its own reality as long in that capacity assurance does not struggle with the First or Second Laws
robotic surgery are sorts or different types of surgeries that are done by utilizing robotic systems. robotic assisted surgery was created to overcome the limitations of previous existing or minimally invasive surgeries and to upgrade the abilities of specialists performing open surgery. robotically assisted minimally invasive surgery , rather than directly moving the instruments, the specialist utilizes one of two strategies to administer the instruments. These incorporate utilizing a direct telemanipulator or through PC control which is a remote controller that enables the specialist to play or perform the ordinary movements with the surgery . robotic srgery is a term utilized for related activities of a specialist or surgeon and a surgical robot which is customized to complete certain activities during the preoperative procedure) that is computer controlled. Robotic surgery can be separated into two different types depending on the level of interaction during the method: supervisory-controlled, telesurgical, and shared-control. patients experience various advantages contrasted with open medical procedure, including Less injury on the body Insignificant scarring, and Quicker recuperation time.uses of robotic surgery in field of heart, thoracic ,gastro intestinal ,bone
Colorectal surgery is a field in medicine managing disorders of the rectum,anus, and colon. The field is otherwise called proctology, yet this term is currently utilized rarely inside prescription and is regularly utilized to distinguish works on identifying with the anus and rectum in particular. proctology is derived from the Greek words proktos, signifying "anus or "hindparts", and - logia, signifying "science" or "study". Colorectal disorders incorporate varicosities or swelling, and inflamation of veins in the rectum and rear-end (Hemorrhoids) ,unnatural splits or tears in the rear-end (Anal fissures ) ,abnormal associations,severe constipation ,fecal incontinence, cancer. Colorectal malignant growth (CRC), otherwise called bowel cancer and colon malignancy or cancer , is the development of malignant growth from the colon or rectum( parts of large intestine).A malignancy or cancer is the irregular or abnormal development of cells that have ability to invade or spread to different parts of the body. Signs and symptoms may incorporate blood in the stool, an change in bowel moment , weight reduction, and feeling tired constantly. colorectal malignant growths are because of maturity and life style changes, diet, over weight smoking, and absence of physical activity.
Minimally Invasive surgery procedure enables your specialist to utilize systems that cutoff the size and number of cuts, or cuts, that they have to make. It's normally viewed as more secure than open medical procedure. You'll for the most part recoup all the more rapidly, invest less energy in the medical clinic, and feel progressively good while you mend. In conventional open medical procedure, your specialist makes one enormous slice to see the piece of your body that they're working on. In insignificantly intrusive medical procedure, your specialist utilizes little instruments, cameras, and lights that fit through a few modest cuts in your skin. This enables your specialist to perform medical procedure without opening a ton of skin and muscle. Some insignificantly obtrusive medical procedures are finished with mechanical innovation that permits progressively exact command over the medical procedure. Other insignificantly intrusive medical procedures are managed without mechanical help.
Oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS or OMFS)surgeons involve in the surgery of the face, mouth, and jaws. craniomaxillofacial complex: mouth, jaws, face, neck, and skull, and include Dentoalveolar,Cosmetic surgery of the head and neck,Surgery to embed osseointegrated (bone combined) dental inserts and maxillofacial inserts for joining craniofacial prostheses and bone tied down portable amplifiers. ,Orthognathic surgery. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons alludes illness of the oral cavity , jaws , salivary gland ,temporomandibular joints, facial muscles and perioral skin . The mouth is a significant organ with different fuctions . Neurosurgery, or neurological surgeons or physians , is the specialist involved in prevention ,conclusion, surgical treatment, and rehablation of disorders which influence any portion of the sensory or nervous system incorporating the brain, spinal cord,peripheral nerves, and extra cranial cerebrovascular system.
peripheral nerves diorders are the most frequent neurological complecations of diabetes. The quantity or number of patients with diabetic neuropathy worldwide is expandingor increasing alongside the prevalance of diabetes itself. Diabetes can influence peripheral nerves, thoracic nerves, cranial nerves or autonomic nerves. and also influence multiple sensory and motar nerves in distal parts of the limbs (diabetic polyneuropathy) or influence one nerve at any given moment (diabetic mononeuropathy). It can likewise principally influence the autonomic nerves and cause diabetic autonomic neuropathy. signs and symptoms include unusual sensations, numbness and pain in their grasp and feet. othe neurological disorders are glioma which is a common type of tumor originating in the cerebrum or brain. They can influence all ages, yet they are frequently found in adults . Gliomas are more in men than in women.These group of tumors include glioblastomas. Glioblastoma side effects might be similar to other gliomas. • Disorders of peripheral nerves are also the most frequent neurological complications of HIV disease. With expanding or increasing survival of patients with HIV, the quantity of patients who have HIV neuropathy is expanding around the world. HIV can also influence multiple nerves and motar nerves, thoracic nerves, cranial nerves or autonomic nerves. Now and again this kind of neuropathy is because of a gathering of anti- HIV medications and is called antiretroviral lethal or toxic neuropathy. HIV can likewise influence one nerve at any given moment (HIV mononeuropathy) or cause a provocative neuropathy like Guillain-Barre disorder (GBS).
Vascular medical procedure incorporates the analysis and far reaching, longitudinal administration of clutters of the blood vessel, venous, and lymphatic frameworks, selective of the intracranial and coronary courses. Vascular medical procedure includes systems identifying with endovascular medical procedures including: swell angioplasty and additionally stenting, aortic and fringe vascular endovascular stent/join arrangement, thrombolysis, and different extras for vascular remaking.
surgical oncology is a malignancy or cancer care field that focous on utilizing surgery to analyze or diagnose , stage and treat disease . surgical oncologists may likewise perform palliative surgery to help control pain, increase a patient's solace or comfort level and manage malignancy related side effects and symptoms. surgery relies upon components, for example, the sort, size, area, evaluation and stage of the tumor, just as issues identified with the patient's health, including age, physical fitness and othermedical conditions .cancer surgery joined with different treatments, for example, chemotherapy, radiation treatment and additionally hormone treatment. Nonsurgical medicines might be directed before medical procedure (neoadjuvant treatment) or after medical procedure (adjuvant treatment) to help forestall malignant growth development, metastasis or repeat. depend upon the kind of malignant growthor cancer , the size of the tumor and its area, medical procedure might be performed utilizing minimally invasive procedure , for example, laparoscopy or robotic surgery. Different conditions may require open surgery, which are increasingly obtrusive and have larger incisions
It is a part of the treatment of wound healing, radiation treatment or therapy and a few drugs or medications. Cerebrovascular anomalies or abnormalities are conditions described or described by deformed or malformed blood vessels that can prompt or lead hemorrhages, strokes, blood clumps or clots. They frequently or oftenly treated by surgery. Neurosurgeons work or operate on cerebrovascular abnormalities so as to restore normal blood flow to the brain or cerebrum and reduce these risks such as cerebrovascular irregularities Aneurysm, Arterial dismemberment ,ANEURYSM, Arteriovenous abnormality, Cavernous distortion, Hemangioma , Moyamoya disorder. biochemical or electrical abnormalities or anomalies in cerebrum or brain , spinal cord and other nerves can also result in these type of symptoms Craniofacial Anomalies are a moreor large number of conditions that can influence the state of a child's head and face.
An infant's skull comprises of a many plates of delicate or soft bone that are moblie ,permitting entry through the birth cannal when babies are born . These bonesin the end will fuse together when they grows or develops. In pediatric craniosynostosis, a newborn or infant skull bones combine or fuses too early , that can restrict brain development or growth and result in an irregularor abnormal head shape. children's brought into the world with craniosynostosis have a particularor distinct phenotype, i.e., appearance—obesrvable trait caused by expression of a condition's genes . craniosynostosis results in expandedor increased intracranial weight driving conceivably to visual hindrance, resting impedance, eating troubles, or an impairment of mental development joined or combined with a significant reduction or decrease in IQ.
Genioplasty is a part of orthogantic surgirical adjustment of dentofacial deformities. Genioplasty is not a substitutue for mandibular surgery that replaces the mandible in right sagittal position . The osseous genioplasty is adaptable or versatile that can deliver powerful changes in facial harmony, and can be utilized to increase projection,shorten or add vertical dimensions, right asymmetries, and within limits ,recess the chin.
Thoracic surgery procedure alludes to tasks on organs in the chest, including the heart, lungs and throat. Instances of thoracic medical procedure incorporate coronary vein sidestep medical procedure, heart transplant, lung transplant and evacuation of parts of the lung influenced by malignant growth. Particular thoracic specialists treat lung and esophageal malignant growth, while specific cardiovascular specialists treat the heart. Thoracic surgery procedure, otherwise called chest surgery procedure, might be utilized to analyze or fix lungs influenced by malignant growth, injury or aspiratory sickness. For lung malignancy, your specialist may expel knobs, tumors and lymph hubs to analyze, stage and treat the infection. Thoracic surgery systems might be performed with either negligibly obtrusive methods or an open surgery called a thoracotomy. Your specialist may pick a thoracotomy when it is important to see huge segments of the lung or inward chest pit. The strategy might be performed to evacuate the whole lung or a segment of the lung.
Diagnostic radiology refers to the field of medicine that uses non-invasive imaging scans to diagnose a patient. The tests and equipment used sometimes involves low doses of radiation to create highly detailed images of an area.
Spinal surgery is the most widely recognized surgery for chronic nonspecific back pain with degenerative changes. The specialist will join spinal bones, called vertebrae, together,which limits the movement among them and how far your nerves can stretch. Smoking can make this more complicated. Laminectomy is the most widely recognized surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. In this procedure a specialist evacuates portions of the bone, bone spurs, or tendons in your back. which relieves pressure on spinal nerves and can ease pain or weakness. major disadvantage in this process is it will make spine less stable . Spinal surgery may help mitigate manifestations of numerous back issues, includes Degenerative disk diseases, Spondylolisthesis
Pediatric surgery is a subspecialty of surgery including the surgery of foetus , infants, children ,adolescence , and young adults. some diseases that require pediatric surgery are congential malformations, abdominal wall defects chest wall deformations and childhood tumors Fetal surgery otherwise called foetal reconstructive surgery, antenatal surgery, pre-natal surgery that are utilized to treat birth defects in foetus who are still in the pregnant uterus. There are three principle types of surgeries are open fetal surgery, which includes totally opening the uterus to operate on the foetus ; minimally invasive feto scopic surgery, which uses small incisions and is guided by fetoscopy and sonography; and percutaneous foetal treatment or therapy . minimally invasive fetoscopic surgery is useful for some foetal conditions like Twin-twin transfusion disorder,Spina bifida.
A brachioplasty surgery reshapes the back piece of your upper arm, from your arm to your elbow. It's additionally called an arm lift. It evacuates or removes extra skin and tissue. It makes your upper arm look smoother. These additional skinfolds may cause the accompanying issues: General distress, Problems with cleanliness.Inflammation and rash, Poor confidence , potential dangers include Trouble with wound recuperating, Infection, Excessive dying, Damage to lymphatic tissue,Damage to close-by nerves ,Complications from anesthesia,Pain, Blood clusters ,Thick or enlarged scars. Brachioplasty techniques are Liposuction ;Covered up/Minimal cut brachioplasty , Conventional brachioplasty , Expanded brachioplast ,Fish-entry point brachioplasty, Non-excisional brachioplasty,Superficial fascial system suspension. complications of brachioplasty includes Risks of anesthesia,Blood clumps, Surgical dangers ,Collapsed lung ,Fluid develop under the injury ,Sensory nerve harm, Damage to fundamental tissue , Tissue passing along the injury, or skin misfortune ,Prolonged swelling , irritated scarring ,(unevenness) of the skin .
Breast surgery is a type of surgery performed on the breast. After breast surgery the complications may arise that was related to wound healing, hematoma, seroma Breast enlargement or augmentation otherwise called augmentation mammoplasty (surgery to increase breast size). It includes putting breast implants under breast tissue or chest muscles. There are three general classes of cosmetic surgery performed on the breasts (additionally called mammoplasty): breast augmentation, breast reduction, and breast reconstruction. Breast enlargement is performed to improve the appearance, size, and shape of a women breasts by breast implants which is a prosthesis In reconstructive plastic surgery, breast inserts or implants can be set to re-establish a natural looking breast mound for post–mastectomy breast recreation patients. They are likewise utilized cosmetically to augment the presence of the breast through breast augmentation surgery. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to evacuate or to remove the malignant growth or cancer while leaving as much normal breast as possible. Breast-conserving surgery is in some cases also called lumpectomy, quadrantectomy, halfway mastectomy, or segmental mastectomy.
Endocrine Surgery is a careful sub-claim to fame concentrating on medical procedure of the endocrine organs, including the thyroid organ, the parathyroid organs, the adrenal organs, organs of the endocrine pancreas, and some neuroendocrine glands.Though there has verifiably been a partition among therapeutic and careful ways to deal with infection the board, the generally new forte of endocrine medical procedure blends specialized skill with a working learning of the physiologic changes related with hormone overabundance and insufficiency. At the end of the day, it is characteristically multidisciplinary in nature.
Outpatient medical procedure focuses, same day medical procedure focuses, or surgicenters, are medicinal services offices where surgeries not requiring a medium-term emergency clinic stay are performed. Such medical procedure is generally less confounded than that requiring hospitalization. Maintaining a strategic distance from hospitalization can bring about cost reserve funds to the gathering liable for paying for the patient's social insurance.
Eye Surgery, otherwise called visual medical procedure, is medical procedure performed on the eye or its adnexa, regularly by an ophthalmologist. The eye is a delicate organ, and requires extraordinary consideration previously, during, and after a surgery to limit or avert further harm.
Gastrointestinal Surgery is a treatment for ailments of the pieces of the body associated with processing. This incorporates the throat (ee-sof-uh-gus), stomach, small digestive tract, internal organ, and rectum. It additionally incorporates the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Canthopexy is a surgrical fixatation of the canthus .It is a strategy or a procedure totighten and strengthen the ligament or tendons that joins or attaches the external or outer edge of the lower lid to the side of the eye socket and can also improve drooping of eyelids and help sagging, slightly baggy eyelook youthful or younger and refreshed canthopexy is derived from the word “cantho “ which means canthus, or the edge or corner of the eyelids and "Pexy" means the structure that is being fixated . It could be said, the structures of the eyelid are not rearranged, they are simply tightened "as is". Canthopexy is less risk of rounding the external or outer angle of the eyelids and it is frequently performed with cosmetic lower eyelid surgery .
Veterinary Surgery is medical procedure performed on creatures by veterinarians, whereby the methods fall into three general classes: orthopedics (bones, joints, muscles), delicate tissue medical procedure (skin, body depressions, cardiovascular framework, GI/urogenital/respiratory tracts), and neurosurgery. Progressed surgeries, for example, joint substitution (absolute hip, knee and elbow substitution), break fix, adjustment of cranial cruciate tendon lack, oncologic (malignant growth) medical procedure, herniated circle treatment, confounded gastrointestinal or urogenital methodology, kidney transplant, skin unites, muddled injury the board, insignificantly intrusive strategies (arthroscopy, laparoscopy, thoracoscopy) are performed by veterinary specialists (as enrolled in their purview). Most broad practice veterinarians perform routine medical procedure [neuters (fix and maiming), minor mass extractions, etc.], some likewise play out extra methods.
A surgical nurse , alluded to as a theatre nurse or scrub nurse who spends significant time in preoperative care,providing care to patients before, during and after surgery. surgical nurse are in charge or responsible for nearly six patients, contingent upon the nature of surgical ward. intensive Care and High-Dependency units have one to two nurses for every patient. surgical nurse attendants may rehearse in various sorts of surgeries such as General surgery,Vascular surgery,Colo-rectal, Surgical Oncology ,Orthopaedic ,Urological surgeries It is portrayed or characterized by repetitive episodes of shallow or paused breathing during sleep, despite effort to breathe, and is typically associated with a decrease in blood oxygen saturation called as "apneas" (actually, "without breath"), commonly last 20 to 40 seconds