The Future of transportation involves moving into new, smarter sources of energy, modes of transport and physical and technological infrastructure to support these transportation innovations. Three common themes in transportation innovation are: Smart technology, Electrification & Autonomy.
New transportation innovations:
Autonomous aerial vehicles,
A self-driving car, also known as an autonomous vehicle (AV or auto), driverless car, or robo-car is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and moving safely with little or no human input.
Self-driving cars combine a variety of sensors to perceive their surroundings, such as radar, lidar, sonar, GPS, odometry and inertial measurement units. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage.
A self-driving vehicle, otherwise called a robot vehicle, self-sufficient vehicle, or driverless car, is a vehicle that is equipped for detecting its condition and moving with practically no human input. Independent vehicles join an assortment of sensors to see their environment, for example, radar, Lidar, sonar, GPS, odometry and inertial estimation units. Propelled control frameworks decipher tangible data to distinguish fitting route ways, just as deterrents and important signage.
Noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH), also known as noise and vibration (N&V), is the study and modification of the noise and vibration characteristics of vehicles, particularly cars and trucks. While noise and vibration can be readily measured, harshness is a subjective quality, and is measured either via "jury" evaluations, or with analytical tools that can provide results reflecting human subjective impressions. These latter tools belong to the field known as "psychoacoustics."
Interior NVH deals with noise and vibration experienced by the occupants of the cabin, while exterior NVH is largely concerned with the noise radiated by the vehicle, and includes drive-by noise testing.
NVH is mostly engineering, but often objective measurements fail to predict or correlate well with the subjective impression on human observers. For example, although the ear's response at moderate noise levels is approximated by A-weighting, two different noises with the same A-weighted level are not necessarily equally disturbing. The field of psychoacoustics is partly concerned with this correlation.
In some cases the NVH engineer is asked to change the sound quality, by adding or subtracting particular harmonics, rather than making the vehicle quieter.
In 3D computer graphics , modeling is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any surface of an object in three dimensional via specialized software .Models can be created automatically or manually .The manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting
This section discusses some potential safety considerations for electric vehicles. As noted, it was not the intention to imply that electric vehicles are unsafe or would expose the public to greater risks than conventional vehicles.
The advent of Robotic Method Automation (RPA) was a key milestone for the event automotive trade. Automation refers to the use of machines to perform tasks that had previously been undertaken by humans, which reduces the error rate and enhances the management of repeatable tasks. Most prevalent applications are curve welding, plasma cutting, laser cutting, BIW welding lines, palatalizing, tending robots on press machines, CNC machines and so on.
A solar car is a solar vehicle used for land transport. Solar cars usually run on only power from the sun, although some models will supplement that power using a battery, or use solar panels to recharge batteries or run auxiliary systems for a car that mainly uses battery power.
Solar cars combine technology typically used in the aerospace, bicycle, alternative energy and automotive industries. The design of a solar vehicle is severely limited by the amount of energy input into the car. Most solar cars have been built for the purpose of solar car races. Some prototypes have been designed for public use, and the Lightyear One solar charged battery electric vehicle is expected to be available starting in 2021; currently, no cars primarily powered by the sun are available commercially.
Solar cars depend on a solar array that uses photovoltaic cells (PV cells) to convert sunlight into electricity. Unlike solar thermal energy which converts solar energy to heat, PV cells directly convert sunlight into electricity. When sunlight (photons) strike PV cells, they excite electrons and allow them to flow, creating an electric current. PV cells are made of semiconductor materials such as silicon and alloys of indium, gallium and nitrogen. Crystalline silicon is the most common material used and has an efficiency