Title: Overpopulation and Voluntary Family Planning: Setting a New Health Political Agenda
Overpopulation and Voluntary Family Planning: Setting a New Health Political Agenda
Voluntary family planning allows people to attain their desired number of children and determine the spacing of pregnancies. It is achieved through use of all available contraceptive methods. Family planning is key to slowing unsustainable population growth and the resulting negative impacts on the economy, environment, and national and regional development efforts.
Contraceptive use has increased in many parts of the world, especially in Asia and Latin America, but continues to be low in sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless ‘Three Successful Sub-Saharan Africa Family Planning Programs’ show how African best practises of Ethiopia, Rwanda and Malawi share a common strategy: Contraceptive prevalence has risen steadily from a low starting point and moved upward sharply in most years in all three countries: from 2000 to 2011 in Ethiopia from 6.3% to 27.3%, in Rwanda from 5.7% to 45% and Malawi from 26.1% to 42.2%. Such progress is helping these countries move closer to what the development community calls “the demographic dividend”.In particular these achievements have been possible due two main strategies:
1) countries dramatically reduced financial barriers to access modern contraceptives.
2) huge task shifting, reducing physical distances from the poorest to the provision of services have been done with training schemes: provision of long-acting family planning methods shifted from doctors (therefore from hospitals) to nurses at the health centre level while provision of condom and pills shifted from nurses (health centre level) to trained community health workers, present in every single village. most recent WHO published data estimate that 214 million women of reproductive age in developing regions who want to avoid pregnancy are not using a modern contraceptive method: a huge unmet need. According to WHO and UNFPA, providing access to these women would prevent 67 million unintended pregnancies and would reduce induced abortions from 48 million to 13 million. It would also reduce maternal deaths by 76,000 per year, new-born deaths from 2.9 million to 660,000 per year and HIV infections in new-borns from 130,000 to 9,000.
Michele Usuelli has lead and managed the neonatal emergency transport system, STEN. He is lead and managed clinical and research program of Neonatal care in developing countries for 7 years. He is a senior neonatologist at 3rd level NICU with capacity of managing up to 25 ventilated newborns, pre-post operatory management of surgical newborns, intensive/subintensive NICU and the biggest public in Italy. At present on leave. Since May 1st I have been elected in the regional assembly of Lombardy. (In Italy health is directly managed by regions).
Title: Advancement Treatment for Neonatal Development
Advancement Treatment for Neonatal Development
There are various risk factors to neonatal development during neonatal period at the first four weeks of a child’s life. Neonatal development in this period, it presents critical in brain-nerve system maturation, cardiovascular and pulmonary development, this time for a child face to risks at developing of different diseases:
1. Fetal Diseases, as Fetal Nutrition Disorders or Fetal Oxygen Distress;
2. Hereditary Diseases, as Kartagener Syndrome or Cystic Fibrosis;
3. Congenital Abnormal Diseases, as Digestive System Abnormalities or Cardiovascular Abnormalities;
4. Newborn Diseases, as, Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome, Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome. And Immunology Immaturity
Neonatal development has studied, and genetic reasons are in basic role to develop diseases of Hereditary Diseases and Congenital Defect or Newborn Diseases. Environmental risk factors are also observed to neonatal development, the risks to neonatal are either from maternal or from the child self by mediated with the factors of infection, nutrition or function immaturity.
The advance treatment in neonatal is applied in life support treatment with oxygen supply, monitor observation and warm keeping assistant machine; pharmacology therapy, surfactant replacement or nitric oxide inhalation therapy and ECMO in pulmonary cardiological support therapy to clinical abnormal presentation. Medical Collaboration has role in critical care for neonatal diseases, there have Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, ambulance transfer and basic research based on national trust groups.
Dr. Yan Wang is a doctor and scientist in Medicine Science, she has Medicine Bachelor degree(M.D) in General Medicine and Pediatrics in 1990, and she also has the Doctoral Philosophy Degree(Ph.D) in Emergency and Pulmonary Medicine in 1998 from the Fudan University Medical School in China. She has worked in postdoctoral Scholar and investigator role in the United States of America since 2000 at the University of Miami Medicine School, Jefferson Healthy System Albert Einstein Medical Center and University of Pennsylvania Medicine School. She has critical working experience at the Imperial College in London in 2014. Currently she is attending doctor, professor, author, leader and committee member at hospitals, universities, organizations and Journal Presses with appointed positions.
She has published first-authored articles on peer-reviewed journals and conference abstracts about 100 products, She has written medical books over 10 books in English versions published in the United States or the United Kingdom. Her publications reflect her contribution at Science, Medicine and special Pediatrics. As well, she has working experience at speeches, teaching-courses, textbook and news release during the past more than 25 years longer.
Currently she is in charge of ongoing scholarly project as writing medical books and being organization committee; as she is in endeavor of awarded or honored in science achievement and spiritual life, it has included in my article and theory.
Title: Status of Pediatric Cardiac Services in the Largest Democracy of The World: India
Status of Pediatric Cardiac Services in the Largest Democracy of the World: India
With a present population of 1.3 billions, India ranks second presently as the most populous country. It has found its place among the fastest growing major economies. Globally approximately 2.5 million kids are born annually each year. Many of these neonates are born with defects which are present since birth- Congenital birth defects. Among these birth defects, congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common ac- counting for 28-30%. The birth prevalence of CHD is 8-10/1000 live births. Approximately 2.4 lakh children are born with CHD each year in our country. Although the birth prevalence is more or less constant globally, the epidemiology of CHD is quite diﬀerent in our country com- pared to the western world.
In 85% cases, the aetiology of CHD is unknown. The role of heredity is found in only 10-15% cases. Maternal viral exanthems like rubella have been found to have good association with occurrence of CHD in neonates. Maternal diabetes, smoking, alcohol intake further adds on to the list. Maternal exposure to teratogenic drugs and agents
especially during the ﬁrst trimester of pregnancy, increased maternal BMI, increasing age of the parents, consanguineous marriages, in vitro fertilisa- tion pregnancy are some other cases which have been attributed to the list. Family history of CHD adds to the risk of a child of having CHD.
Dr. Murtaza Kamal is presently Director of Pediatric Cardiology and Pediatric Sciences at R N R Hospital and Kamal Hospital, Jhunjhunun, Rajasthan, India. He attended the prestigious VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India for his Mediacal schooling and his specialisation in Pediatric Sciences. Further he did his sub speciality training from Star Hospitals, Hyderabad, India. Dr. Kamal is a renowned academician with over 50 scientific paper publications in peer reviewed journals. He is the Co-founder cum loop closer of MAM Academy, Delhi which is an online platform to train medical professionals.
Title: The Level of Knowledge about Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases among Medical Students in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia
The Level of Knowledge about Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases among Medical Students in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia
Background: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are monogenic disorders that affect the immune system, and increase the susceptibility to infections. The prevalence of PIDs in children less than 5 years old in United States, is 10.3 per 100,000. The lack of knowledge about PIDs is the main cause of the delayed diagnosis that leads to subsequent increments in morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge about PIDs in medical students in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting university undergraduate students (third, fourth, fifth and sixth-year medical students) from four universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to the participants through mediators in each university.
Results: In total, 387 students participated in the study. The majority (69%) were 21-23 years old and just more than half were female (52%). The student’s knowledge score ranged from 3 to 33, with a mean of 14.1 (SD±5.6). The sample was classified according to the level of knowledge into two groups: below-average group and average/above-average group with a cut-off point of 60% of the total score. The majority (83%, n=322) was in the below-average group, while 17% (n=65) in the average/above-average group. In terms of the two groups, the number of participants who are considered average/above-average knowledge were found to be the highest in the sixth year compare to the other years (P value<0.05).
Conclusion: The results indicated a lack of knowledge about PIDs among medical students. PIDs should be emphasized more in medical education. This is the first study in the Middle East, to evaluates the level knowledge about PIDs in medical students and to highlights the importance of further studies in the future.
Nawaf Alghamdi has completed his MBBS at the age of 24 years from King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. He is currently in his Internship year that take place at King Abdullah Specialist Children Hospital at Ministry of National Guard - Health Affairs in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He had participations and publications in multiple researches.
In the year 2005 Dr Sirma Todorova Angelova graduated her higher education at the University of Economics in Varna, Bulgaria and gained a Master degree of International Financial Affairs. In the year 2011 Dr Angelova graduated her higher education and gained a Master Degree of Dental Medicine at the Medical University-Varna, Varna, Bulgaria. Since 2011 Dr. Sirma Angelova has been working as an Assistant-Professor at Medical University-Varna. Dr Angelova gained a Certificate of Specialization of Pediatric Dentistry in December 2015. In 2017 Sirma Angelova gained a postgraduate degree, PhD, after accomplishment of an independent research on the topic of “Caries Risk Assessment and Prevention in Children Suffering from Some Renal Disorders”. In the year 2018 Dr Sirma Angelova gained an academic degree of Chief-Assistant at the Medical University-Varna. In the year 2019 has been issued the monograph entitled “Epigenetic and Genetic Aspects of Oral Health in Children with Pyelonephritis” authored by Dr. Sirma Todorova Angelova. Sirma Angelova has authored and co-authored more than 70 papers. Dr. Angelova has participated in more than 50 scientific congresses.