Title: Climate Change
India is very famous for ‘Alphonso Mango' in the international market. However, due to indiscriminate use of agrochemicals, growth regulators, and fertilizers, reduces the exportable quality of fruit. Therefore, it is well felt need to adopt sustainable pest management. In the cursory survey, it is found that Idioscopus clypealis (Mango leafhopper) is the major pest in the study area. The present study aimed towards the development of bio-insecticide and to check its potential against Mango leafhopper. Strychnos nux vomica extract contains alkaloids (Strychnine and Brucine) which are responsible for the insecticidal property. The efficacy of Srtychnos nux vomica extract against mango leafhopper was checked in three different solvents (viz. Petroleum ether, Ethanol, Ethyl acetate) and the value obtained was statistically significant i.e. p<0.05. From the phytotoxicity test, it is concluded that a high amount of Neem oil is not good for plant health. The liquid insecticide was formulated in the form of emulsifiable concentrates (EC). Different concentrations are prepared and all four (A1, A2, A3, A4) concentrations of the formulation are further analyzed for the bioassay for 24 hrs. The bioassay results showed that the formulation 'A1' and 'A2' showed 100% mortality after 24 hrs. However, ‘A3’ and ‘A4’ showed comparatively less mortality. However, ‘A1’ and ‘A2’ have comparatively more amounts of Neem oil and it showing 100% mortality and it shows phytotoxicity. Hence, Formulation 'A3" and 'A4' are considered for further analysis. The results obtained from bioassay it is very clear that formulation 'A4' showed less mortality than 'A3' with no phytotoxic effect. Therefore, formulation ‘A3’ showing optimum results in terms of phytotoxicity and bioassay. Hence, the 'A3' formulation was selected. However, by using probit analysis LC50 was carried out. The LC50 was observed at concentration i.e. 2.57%. Formulation 'A3' was further diluted to 5%, 10%, and 15% to analyze its critical concentration effectiveness against mango leafhopper (Idioscopus clypealis). From the mortality curve and through regression equation it is concluded that the critical concentration of 'A3' is 15% and it showed 78.57% mortality which is close to that of the mortality observed with Imidacloprid chemical insecticide (88.59 ± 8.64) used frequently to manage mango leafhopper at the study area. Therefore, it is highly recommended to use newly formulated bioinsecticide for the effective management of mango leafhopper in the study area.
Dr. Tari Vinaya Satyawan Savitri is currently working as an “External Consultant” at GauEcoGram Agrovikas Producer Company Private Limited, Pune, Maharashtra, India. She has completed her Ph.D. in Environmental Science from the University of Mumbai. She did under graduation studies in Zoology, M.Sc.
When the disease made by virus becomes a threat to life or organs blood circulation decreases, Temperature of fever increase prevailing blood circulation. And it acts as a protective covering of the body to sustain life. When blood flow decreases to the brain, the patient becomes fainted-delirious. If we try to decreases the temperature of fever, the blood circulation will further be reduced. Blood circulation never increases without temperature increase. Delirious can never be cured without an increase in blood circulation.The temperature of fever is not a surplus temperature or it is not to be eliminated from the body. During fever, our body temperature increases like a brooding hen`s increased body temperature.The actual treatment to fever is to increase blood circulation. Two ways to increase blood circulation. 1. Never allow body temperature to lose 2. Apply heat from outside to the body. When the temperature produced by the body due to fever and heat which we applied on the body combines together, the blood circulation increases.Then the body will stop to produce heat to increase blood circulation. And the body will get extra heat from outside without any usage of energy.
K M Yacob is a practicing physician in the field of healthcare in the state of Kerala in India for the last 31years and very much interested in basic research. My interest is spread across the fever, inflammation and back pain. I am a writer. I already printed and published nine books on these subjects. I wrote hundreds of articles in various magazines. After scientific studies, we have developed 8000 affirmative cross checking questions. It can explain all queries related to fever.