Title: The role of host genetic variability in the development and establishment of human gut microbiome diversity
Background: Studies have shown that human microbiome plays important roles in physiology, from food digestion to mental diseases. Since the gut microbiome composes the highest number of microbial cells outnumbering even our own cell counts, it is expected that the gut microbiome would afect a great deal of human biological functions. This makes the gut microbiome key to maintain homeostasis in the various biological levels where there are constant and active interactions between microbes, tissue, cells and molecules. The structure of the gut microbiota is shaped by many factors, including host genetics. Understanding how these factors determine the microbiome during the development and establishment of the gut microbiota at early stages of human life is crucial to infer biological and pathological microbiome composition. The purpose of this study is to apply tools of bioinformatics to process and analyse data samples of feces of triplet babies in order to verify host genetic associations with gut microbiome during the frst 3 years of the babies lives.
Methods: Infant feces are collected from the frst week of life until 3 years of age. DNA extraction from the samples is performed followed by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) targeting the specifc bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, region V3 - V4. Next-Generation sequencing is applied. Amplicons are then computationally processed by efcient algorithms to yield high quality reads. Later, these reads are assigned to groups of taxa based on diferences on single nucleotide. Species specifc classifers and database are used for taxonomic assignment. Alpha and beta diversity are analysed with both qiime2 plugins and R packages.
Results: Most of our samples presented enough reads to identify all taxa. Phylogenetic diversity increased in samples on later time points presenting time as the dominant factor to determine alpha and beta diversity. Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples. At the species level, monozygotic twins presented more similar microbiome between them than between their dizygotic sibling.
Conclusions: Our results showed that genetic factors could be detected at the species level and that time is crucial for diversity in the frst months of life. The identifcation of the gut microbiome structure in both monozygotic and dizygotic twins sheds some light on how the development and establishment of microbiota take place on the human gut. For our next analysis we will apply appropriate
Title: STUDY OF HIV STATUS IN 400 CASES 0F S.T.Ds IN SHANTI ID CLINIC.VADODARGUJARAT, INDIA
The prospective study was carried out for detecting the prevalence of HIV in sexually transmitted diseases (S.T.D) cases at Shanti infectious diseases clinic at Vadodara, Gujarat, India from January 2018 to May 2020. Out of 400 cases of sexually transmitted diseases, 317 (79.23 %) were males and 83 cases (20.75%) were females. Screening of HIV test was done by Elisa test and was confirmed by Western blot test. Amongst 400 cases 300 cases (75.00%) were in age group of 20 to 50 years, 34 cases (8,55%) were of 0 to 20 years, 66 cases 916.25%) were above 50 years. Out of 400 cases 87 cases (21.75%) were syphilis, 45 cases(11.25%) were cancroid, 73 cases (18,25%) were gonorrhea, 110 cases (27.50%) were genital herpes, 11 cases (2.75%) moll –scum contagiosum 44 cases(11,00%)genital scabies, 9 cases (2.755) cytomegalovirus infection and 21 cases (5,24%) were having lympho-granuloma venerium. Out of 400 cases of sexually transmitted diseases, 67 cases (16.76%) were HIV positive, amongst which 61 cases (91.04%) were HIV1 and remaining 6 cases (8.96%) were HIV2. Although there is plausible link between STI and HIV risk, intervention studies continue to be disappointing. This does not disprove a causal link, but mechanisms of action and the design and implementation of interventions need to be better understood
Narendra Kumar Chopra has completed his master’s degree M. D Internal Medicine from “Maharaja Sayajee Rao University” Baroda, India in the year 1986.Subsequently he has completed his Fellowship in Tropical Medicine from Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene London (U. K) in the year 1989.He was also awarded WHO Fellowship in the year 1990 in Leprosy, infectious diseases in countries of South East Asia &Africa.
He has also received young scientist Melville Christian Memorial Award and Gold medal at national level in the year 1995 for research in the field of leprosy. He was also awarded Rastriya Gaurav Award by Vice President of India in the year 2002 for outstandind contribution in the field of Infectious diseases. He was also selected in the team by World Health organization for action program for elimination of leprosy in the year 2003.He has published more than 40 research papers in peer reviewed national &International journals. He had worked as Associate Professor and Head Medicine in AIMST University in Bedong Kedah State Malaysia from May 2013 to May 2015. Presently he is working as Clinical Professor and infectious diseases Consultant in the Faculty of Medicine SEGI University, Clinical Campus, Hospital Sibu (Sarawak State) Malaysia since January
Title: Lab diagnosis of parasites in blood
Dr (Profesor) Amrit Kaur Kaler, MD Has written 22 papers in National and International journals Has given talks in many CMEs Co-authored a book for post graduate students Currently working as a fellow in molecular pathology and cancer genomics, strand life sciences, HCG
Title: Production and purification of Cellulase enzyme from marine isolates
Cellulase enzyme has its importance not only industrially but also medically. The present study focuses on the isolation and identification of cellulose degraders from the marine environment. Marine sediments from Central Institute of Fisheries Education were used as samples for the isolation of cellulose degraders. Bacillus licheniformis was isolated and identified as the most effective marine cellulose degrader. Further this organism was used for the extraction and purification of the cellulase enzyme by Solid State Fermentation. The cellulase enzyme activity was found to be 129 μmoles/ml/min. The enzyme was partially purified using the Aqueous Two Phase method. The obtained enzyme was further used for its various applications. Production of Bioethanol using the cellulase enzyme indicated that cellulase enzyme enhances the production of bioethanol and the other application was the degradation of polymicrobial bioflims using the obtained cellulase enzyme. Medically the celluase enzyme helps in the treatment of phytobezoars found in the human stomach. This work demonstrates that the marine environment can be a very useful source for the production of the cellulase enzyme which has a very diverse importance not only industrially but also environmentally and medically.
Saloni Parekh has completed Masters in Microbiology from Mithibai college, Vile parle. Completed a three month internship at Prince aly Khan hospital (microbiology department). An external lecturer at the Bombay hospital college of nursing for medical microbiology and immunology. Have attended various workshops on Microbiology and Research methodology. Currently a Microbiology technical officer at Suburban diagnostics India Pvt.ltd Central processing Lab.
Title: Implementation of Antimicrobial Stewardship makes a differences
Introduction: Antimicrobial stewardship is a coordinated program that promotes the appropriate use of antimicrobials (including antibiotics), improves patient outcomes, reduces microbial resistance, and decreases the spread of infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms.
7 Core Elements of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs are
Discussion: Clinical Microbiologist play a key role in the Antimicrobial Stewardship program. Provide the cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility reports, enhanced culture and susceptibility reports, guidance in the preanalytic phase, rapid diagnostic test availability, provider education, and alert and surveillance systems. Indications should be evidence based. Narrowest spectrum required with appropriate doses to the site and type of infection with minimal duration of infection. Ensure monotherapy in most cases.
Avoid use of meropenem for empiric treatment of suspected late onset sepsis if rates of multi-drug resistant gram- negative bacilli are low. Avoid therapy with overlapping activity. Avoid simultaneous use of metronidazole and meropenem to treat necrotizing enterocolitis. Target vancomycin trough to 15–20 mg/L to treat pneumonia caused by MRSA.
De-escalation of Antibiotic Treatments a concern and important. Stop therapy promptly if indicated by culture results. Discontinue antibiotics after 48 hours if blood cultures are negative and ongoing infection is not suspected. Restrict the Use of higher generation antibiotics with restricted antibiotic policy. Computer surveillance and decision support should be there. Automated alerts for redundant antibiotic combinations. Monitoring Success of Antimicrobial Stewardship by successful implementation and safety. Then can be monitored by cost reduction, DOT and DDD.
Conclusion: The emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms (AROs) has been linked to the inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics. Antimicrobial stewardship is recognized as a critical patient safety and quality imperative to combat the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and preserve the activity of existing agents. The primary goal of antimicrobial stewardship is to optimize clinical outcomes while minimizing unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and the emergence of resistance
Poonam is an MD in medical microbiology with extensive academic experience as an Assistant Professor in Lady Hardinge Medical College. Her academic research was primarily focussed on mycology, hopsital infection control (HIC), serology, antibiotic resistance, antibiotic stewardship and accreditataion of laboratories according to ISO standards. She managed multiple projects and students during her tenure as an Assistant Professsor. Her interest and enthusiansm in management made her manage MBBS batches and also lead the effort in establishing the new laborartory facility. In her present role, she published multiple papers (in the areas of HIV, mycology, hospital infection control, serology and bio-medical waste management) and delivered expert talks in multiple national and state level conferences. She is extremely interested in pursuing her career where she can utilize her research credentials and skills blended with commercial accumen in developing technologies in medical microbiology domain. More precisely, her interest is in academics and diagnostic laboratories with research, Hospital Infection Control and Implementation of all Quality Procedures in the laboratories with excellent administrative and Managerial skills.