Polymer characterization is the analytical branch of polymer science which includes determining molecular weight distribution, the molecular structure, the morphology of the polymer, thermal properties, mechanical properties, and any additives of Polymeric materials. Polymer characterization is done with a variety of experimental approaches.
Mainly Polymers are composed of compounds of carbon, hydrogen and hydrocarbons. These are specifically made of carbon atoms bonded together, into long chains and one to the next other that are called the backbone of the polymer. Whereas the Functional polymers are those contains functional groups that have a greater polarity or reactivity than a classic hydrocarbon chain which improves their segregation, or reactivity. Physical properties of a polymer, such as its strength, flexibility, reactivity, Good corrosion resistance, lose dimensional tolerances, Poor tensile strength and transparency or in different colors depends on Chain length, Side groups, functional group attached and Cross-linking.
Polymer synthesis, also called polymerization, polymer synthesis occurs via a variety of reaction mechanisms that vary in complexity due to functional groups present in reacting compounds and their inherent steric effects. Both synthetic and natural polymer are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers, Coupling of monomers using their multiple bonds is known as addition polymerization coupling of monomers by reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule is called as condensation polymerization
Today, polymer are commonly used in thousands of products as plastics, elastomers, coating, and adhesive, no wonder polymer are found in everything from compact discs to high-tech aerospace application. Polymer testing, consultancy for plastics and additives with applications includes aerospace, electronics, packaging, automotive and medical devices
Materials science and engineering, involves the discovery and design of new materials, with an emphasis on solids and scientific study of the properties and applications of materials of construction or manufacture (such as ceramics, metals, polymers, and composites). Materials science is also an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis. In a broad sense, materials science involves studying the synthesis, processing, structure, properties and performance of materials. Properties of interest can be mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical and quantum mechanical. The outcome of such a study can directly impact the society in which we live and work, by benefiting the industries involved in electronics, communications, medicine, transportation, manufacturing, recreation, energy and environment.
Synthetic polymers are those which are human-made polymers. Synthetic polymers are those which consists of repeated structural units called as monomers. Synthetic polymers are sometimes referred as “plastics”, of which the well-known ones are nylon and polyethylene. There are various synthetic polymers developed so far such as Nylon, Polyvinyl Chloride, Low-Density Polyethylene Polypropylene
Natural polymers occur in nature and can be extracted, The human body contains many natural polymers, such as proteins and nucleic acids. Cellulose, another natural polymer. Some of the Natural polymers includes DNA and RNA, Natural polymers are very much significant in all the life processes of all the living organisms.
Biopolymers are the types of polymers that are produced by living organisms. In other words they are also know as polymeric biomolecules. Biopolymers are generated from renewable sources and they are easily biodegradable because of the oxygen and nitrogen atoms originate in their structural backbone It is a biodegradable chemical compound that is observed as the most organic compound in the ecosphere. Biopolymer are primarily divided into two types, one is produced from living organisms and another is obtained from renewable resources but require polymerization.
Now we are at the beginning of new era of science that explores the behavior of material at their bottom, set new areas in technical applications of polymeric materials, and expose immense opportunities in the enactment and application of materials. Nanotechnology has currently acknowledged an exceptional interest of researchers, technology incubators and commercial organizations to step headfirst in introducing the materials containing nanocomposite structure and new performance standards. Other areas include polymer-based biomaterials, nanoparticle drug delivery, layer-by-layer self-assembled polymer films, miniemulsion particles, imprint lithography, polymer blends, fuel cell electrode polymer bound catalysts, electrospun nanofibers, and nanocomposites
Proteins are linear polymers built of monomer units so-called amino acids. The construction of a vast array of macromolecules or polymer structure from a limited number of monomer building blocks is a recurring theme in biochemistry. The function of a protein is directly dependent on its three dimensional structure unusually, proteins spontaneously wrinkle up into three-dimensional structures that are determined by the sequence of amino acids in the protein polymer. Thus, proteins are the embodiment of the evolution from the one-dimensional world of arrangement to the three-dimensional world of molecules capable of diverse activities. Proteins comprise of a wide range of functional groups. These functional groups include alcohols, carboxylic acids, thiols, thioethers, carboxamides, and variety of basic groups. For instance, the chemical reactivity associated with these groups is essential to the function of enzymes, the proteins that catalyse specific chemical reactions in biological systems
Electrochemistry is a truly multidisciplinary science which can be applied to a variety of fields within the physical, chemical and biological sciences. This topic chapter details a selection of areas including energy conversion and storage in particular fuel cells and Li ion batteries; electrosynthesis which covers both organic synthesis and the electrodeposition of homogeneous as well as nanostructured surfaces; corrosion; electroanalytical chemistry in the classic sense of analyte detection as well as probing mechanistic information regarding oxidation/reduction reactions of electroactive species at the nanoscale. Finally the applicability of electrochemistry to the biological sciences is briefly described.
Analytical Chemistry is the science of obtaining, processing, and communicating information about the composition and structure of matter. Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter. In practice separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Traditional technique subdivided into two strategies: the qualitative and the quantitative strategy for examination:
Qualitative Examination- Established subjective investigation is performed by including one or a progression of synthetic reagents to the analyte. By watching the concoction responses and their items, one can conclude the personality of the analyte. The additional reagents are picked so they specifically respond with one or a solitary class of substance mixes to shape a particular response item.
Quantitative Investigation- Traditional quantitative investigation can be partitioned into gravimetric examination and volumetric examination. The two strategies use comprehensive concoction responses between the analyte and included reagents.
Materials chemistry involves the use of chemistry for the design and synthesis of materials with interesting or potentially useful physical characteristics, such as magnetic, optical, structural or catalytic properties. It also involves the characterization, processing and molecular-level understanding of these substances.
Polymer coating systems can be applied to a metal surface to provide anticorrosion protection. However, polymer coatings develop microcracks easily in structural applications, reducing lifespan, so early sensing, diagnosis and repair of microcracks are important. In this work microcapsules and a catalyst were mixed into a coating matrix so that the active agents were released in a controlled way. Incorporating microcapsules into the coating matrix enables the release of a repairing agent rapidly after triggering of crack propagation in coatings, leading effectively to self-healing. This chapter covers the important parameters in the synthesis of microcapsules; some approaches to the fabrication of self-healing coatings based on these capsules are discussed, together with the disadvantages of embedding them into the coating matrix.