Polymer chemistry Biopolymer Marketing Trends and R&D
Polymer chemistry is the study of the synthesis, characterization and properties of polymer molecules or macromolecules,which are large molecules composed of repeating chemical subunits known as monomers. Biopolymers are vital components in an array of applications across end-use industries, such as textiles, building & construction, packaging, and automotive. The rise in the use of several plastic compounds worldwide caused a rise in emissions and environmental degradation. This caused an alarming need for bio-based compounds, which can be environmental friendly as well as reflect functionality at various end-user markets.
Polymer synthesis, reactions and Kinetics
polymer synthesis, is a chemical reaction in which monomers are joined together by covalent bonding to form polymer structures. The length of the polymer chain is characterized by the number of repeating units in the chain, which is referred to as degree of polymerization.Polymerization reactions are chain reactions, and the formation of Teflon from tetrafluoroethylene is one example. In this reaction, a peroxide (a compound in which two oxygen atoms are joined together by a single covalent bond) may be used as the initiator.Kinetics can also be used to establish a theoretical polymer chain length. This quantity is called kinetic chain length, represented by "vee bar".
Polymers processing and engineering
Polymer processing is defined as an “engineering activity concerned with operations carried out on polymeric materials or systems to increase their utility”.A polymer engineer is an engineering professional who works with the development and manufacturing of polymers such as nylon, epoxy and plastic. A polymer engineer may work with polymers in a variety of roles, including developing new polymers and finding uses for existing ones.
Structural and Functional Properties of Polymers
Mainly Polymers are composed of compounds of carbon, hydrogen and hydrocarbons. These are specifically made of carbon atoms bonded together, into long chains and one to the next other that are called the backbone of the polymer. Whereas the Functional polymers are those contains functional groups that have a greater polarity or reactivity than a classic hydrocarbon chain which improves their segregation, or reactivity.
Smart, Functional Polymers and Supramolecular polymers
Smart polymers are one category of soft materials that respond to environmental changes. One typical example is the thermally-responsive polymers, which are widely used as cell carriers and in 3D printing. Functional polymers are macromolecules that have unique properties or uses.1,2. The. properties of such materials are often determined by the presence of chemical. functional groups that are dissimilar to those of the backbone chains. Supramolecular polymers are polymeric arrays of monomer units, held together by reversible and highly directional secondary interactions — that is, non-covalent bonds, such as hydrogen bonds.
Natural Polymers and Synthetic Polymers
Natural polymers occur in nature and can be extracted, The human body contains many natural polymers, such as proteins and nucleic acids. Cellulose, another natural polymer. Some of the Natural polymers includes DNA and RNA, Natural polymers are very much significant in all the life processes of all the living organisms. Synthetic polymers are those which are human-made polymers. Synthetic polymers are those which consists of repeated structural units called as monomers. Synthetic polymers are sometimes referred as “plastics”, of which the well-known ones are nylon and polyethylene.
Biopolymers and bio-related polymer materials
Biopolymers are polymers produced from natural sources either chemically synthesized from a biological material or entirely biosynthesized by living organisms. The use of biopolymers from different sources has been investigated for many years for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Natural biodegradable polymers are called biopolymers. Polysaccharides, as starch and cellulose, represent the most characteristic family of these natural polymers. Other natural polymers as proteins can be used to produce biodegradable materials. These are the two main renewable sources of biopolymers.
Biodegradable and Polymers from Renewable Resources
Polymer coating systems can be applied to a metal surface to provide anticorrosion protection. However, polymer coatings develop microcracks easily in structural applications, reducing lifespan, so early sensing, diagnosis and repair of microcracks are important. In this work microcapsules and a catalyst were mixed into a coating matrix so that the active agents were released in a controlled way. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources can be obtained through chemical modification of natural polymers, such as starch, cellulose, or chitin. Biobased polymers can also be synthesized through a two-step process from biomass (lignin, cellulose, starch, plant oils)
Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites
Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites of Polymers aims to rapidly publish high quality contributions on fundamental and applied science of polymer composite materials. Understanding the processing–structure–properties relationship is crucial for the development of advanced materials.Polymer nanocomposites contain at least one of the components in the form of particles or fibers/films of size between 5 and 100 nm. For producing polymer composite materials (PCM) and polymer nanocomposites (PNC), natural and synthetic polymers are used as binders (matrices).
Polymer for Nanotechnology
In the nanomedicine field, the polymeric material is used for the production of pharmaceutical and biotechnological products.Studies of NNMs have been conducted to improve medication targeting at specific sites of disease (i.e., site-specific delivery) and/or to attenuate drug localization in healthy tissues.Polymer plays an important role in nanotechnology because they combine various benefits like flexibility, processability, low cost, nanometer-sized, diverse functionalities, and microphase separation.There are many applications for nanomaterials in the commercial, medical, military, and environmental fields due to their unique characteristics. including electrical, catalytic, magnetic, mechanical, thermal, and imaging capabilities.