Polymer characterization is the analytical branch of polymer science which includes determining molecular weight distribution, the molecular structure, the morphology of the polymer, thermal properties, mechanical properties, and any additives of Polymeric materials. Polymer characterization is done with a variety of experimental approaches.
Mainly Polymers are composed of compounds of carbon, hydrogen and hydrocarbons. These are specifically made of carbon atoms bonded together, into long chains and one to the next other that are called the backbone of the polymer. Whereas the Functional polymers are those contains functional groups that have a greater polarity or reactivity than a classic hydrocarbon chain which improves their segregation, or reactivity. Physical properties of a polymer, such as its strength, flexibility, reactivity, Good corrosion resistance, lose dimensional tolerances, Poor tensile strength and transparency or in different colors depends on Chain length, Side groups, functional group attached and Cross-linking.
Polymer synthesis, also called polymerization, polymer synthesis occurs via a variety of reaction mechanisms that vary in complexity due to functional groups present in reacting compounds and their inherent steric effects. Both synthetic and natural polymer are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers, Coupling of monomers using their multiple bonds is known as addition polymerization coupling of monomers by reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule is called as condensation polymerization
Today, polymer are commonly used in thousands of products as plastics, elastomers, coating, and adhesive, no wonder polymer are found in everything from compact discs to high-tech aerospace application. Polymer testing, consultancy for plastics and additives with applications includes aerospace, electronics, packaging, automotive and medical devices
Materials science and engineering, involves the discovery and design of new materials, with an emphasis on solids and scientific study of the properties and applications of materials of construction or manufacture (such as ceramics, metals, polymers, and composites). Materials science is also an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis. In a broad sense, materials science involves studying the synthesis, processing, structure, properties and performance of materials. Properties of interest can be mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical and quantum mechanical. The outcome of such a study can directly impact the society in which we live and work, by benefiting the industries involved in electronics, communications, medicine, transportation, manufacturing, recreation, energy and environment.
Synthetic polymers are those which are human-made polymers. Synthetic polymers are those which consists of repeated structural units called as monomers. Synthetic polymers are sometimes referred as “plastics”, of which the well-known ones are nylon and polyethylene. There are various synthetic polymers developed so far such as Nylon, Polyvinyl Chloride, Low-Density Polyethylene Polypropylene
Natural polymers occur in nature and can be extracted, The human body contains many natural polymers, such as proteins and nucleic acids. Cellulose, another natural polymer. Some of the Natural polymers includes DNA and RNA, Natural polymers are very much significant in all the life processes of all the living organisms.
Biopolymers are the types of polymers that are produced by living organisms. In other words they are also know as polymeric biomolecules. Biopolymers are generated from renewable sources and they are easily biodegradable because of the oxygen and nitrogen atoms originate in their structural backbone It is a biodegradable chemical compound that is observed as the most organic compound in the ecosphere. Biopolymer are primarily divided into two types, one is produced from living organisms and another is obtained from renewable resources but require polymerization.
Now we are at the beginning of new era of science that explores the behavior of material at their bottom, set new areas in technical applications of polymeric materials, and expose immense opportunities in the enactment and application of materials. Nanotechnology has currently acknowledged an exceptional interest of researchers, technology incubators and commercial organizations to step headfirst in introducing the materials containing nanocomposite structure and new performance standards. Other areas include polymer-based biomaterials, nanoparticle drug delivery, layer-by-layer self-assembled polymer films, miniemulsion particles, imprint lithography, polymer blends, fuel cell electrode polymer bound catalysts, electrospun nanofibers, and nanocomposites
Proteins are linear polymers built of monomer units so-called amino acids. The construction of a vast array of macromolecules or polymer structure from a limited number of monomer building blocks is a recurring theme in biochemistry. The function of a protein is directly dependent on its three dimensional structure unusually, proteins spontaneously wrinkle up into three-dimensional structures that are determined by the sequence of amino acids in the protein polymer. Thus, proteins are the embodiment of the evolution from the one-dimensional world of arrangement to the three-dimensional world of molecules capable of diverse activities. Proteins comprise of a wide range of functional groups. These functional groups include alcohols, carboxylic acids, thiols, thioethers, carboxamides, and variety of basic groups. For instance, the chemical reactivity associated with these groups is essential to the function of enzymes, the proteins that catalyse specific chemical reactions in biological systems
Bio-plastics are a form of plastic derived from renewable biomass source, such as vegetable oil, corn-starch, potato-starch rather than fossil-fuel plastics which are derived from petroleum Bio-plastics are biodegradable materials that come from renewable sources and can be used to lessen the problem of plastic waste that is suffocating the planet and polluting the environment. Bioplastics are made through different processes. Some use a microorganism to process base materials, such as vegetable oils, acids, cellulose, starches and alcohols. Bio plastics were mainly established in an effort to discovery a replacement for conventional plastics
Material physics mainly describes the physical properties of materials whereas Materials chemistry implicates the use of chemistry for the design and synthesis of materials with interesting or potentially useful physical characteristics, such as magnetic, optical, structural or catalytic properties. current fields which materials physicists work in include magnetic materials, electronic, optical, and novel materials and structures, quantum phenomena in materials, non-equilibrium physics, and soft condensed matter physics. Material chemistry and physics also include the characterization, processing, performance, properties and molecular-level understanding of the substances. The traditional examples of materials are metals alloys, polymers, Composite material semiconductors, ceramics and glasses.
The use of polymeric materials from renewable resources dates very back in history natural materials, such as casein, natural rubber, and cellulose, were modified to obtain useful polymeric materials. the production and applications of synthetic polymers showed an almost exponential increase. However, concerns regarding depletion of fossil resources, wastes’ disposal and related issues Renewable polymers are isolated from natural biopolymers or synthesized from biobased monomers. Carbohydrates such as cellulose, lignin, starch, terpenes, proteins, chitosan, and also biopolyesters can be chemically modified. In fact, efforts are being made to synthesize traditional monomers and platform chemicals from renewable resources. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging.
Noncovalent interactions provide a flexible means of engineering new chemical entities with tailored properties. Specific interactions between functionalized small molecules and polymer chains bearing complementary binding sites can be used to engineer supramolecular complexes that display mesomorph polymer structure. This has been exploited to develop a range of functional materials including photonic band gap polymers, ionic conductors and donor-acceptor semiconductors polymers. Additionally, the deliberate association of polymers with surfactants in engineered, synthetic materials is increasingly motivated by the possibility of combining the stimuli-responsive self-assembly and solubilizing properties of surfactants with the intrinsic solution properties of polymers, such as rheology medication and facile coating of interfaces. In solution, the hydrophobic Nature of the surfactant compared to a hydrophilic polymer backbone leads to coil-globule transitions on decreasing solvent quality, surfactants cluster and force small length scale intrachain associations, causing a sharp reduction in the end-end chain distance, i.e collapse.