Polymer characterization is the analytical branch of polymer science which includes determining molecular weight distribution, the molecular structure, the morphology of the polymer, thermal properties, mechanical properties, and any additives of Polymeric materials. Polymer characterization is done with a variety of experimental approaches.
Mainly Polymers are composed of compounds of carbon, hydrogen and hydrocarbons. These are specifically made of carbon atoms bonded together, into long chains and one to the next other that are called the backbone of the polymer. Whereas the Functional polymers are those contains functional groups that have a greater polarity or reactivity than a classic hydrocarbon chain which improves their segregation, or reactivity. Physical properties of a polymer, such as its strength, flexibility, reactivity, Good corrosion resistance, lose dimensional tolerances, Poor tensile strength and transparency or in different colors depends on Chain length, Side groups, functional group attached and Cross-linking.
Polymer synthesis, also called polymerization, polymer synthesis occurs via a variety of reaction mechanisms that vary in complexity due to functional groups present in reacting compounds and their inherent steric effects. Both synthetic and natural polymer are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers, Coupling of monomers using their multiple bonds is known as addition polymerization coupling of monomers by reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule is called as condensation polymerization
Today, polymer are commonly used in thousands of products as plastics, elastomers, coating, and adhesive, no wonder polymer are found in everything from compact discs to high-tech aerospace application. Polymer testing, consultancy for plastics and additives with applications includes aerospace, electronics, packaging, automotive and medical devices
Materials science and engineering, involves the discovery and design of new materials, with an emphasis on solids and scientific study of the properties and applications of materials of construction or manufacture (such as ceramics, metals, polymers, and composites). Materials science is also an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis. In a broad sense, materials science involves studying the synthesis, processing, structure, properties and performance of materials. Properties of interest can be mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical and quantum mechanical. The outcome of such a study can directly impact the society in which we live and work, by benefiting the industries involved in electronics, communications, medicine, transportation, manufacturing, recreation, energy and environment.
Synthetic polymers are those which are human-made polymers. Synthetic polymers are those which consists of repeated structural units called as monomers. Synthetic polymers are sometimes referred as “plastics”, of which the well-known ones are nylon and polyethylene. There are various synthetic polymers developed so far such as Nylon, Polyvinyl Chloride, Low-Density Polyethylene Polypropylene
Natural polymers occur in nature and can be extracted, The human body contains many natural polymers, such as proteins and nucleic acids. Cellulose, another natural polymer. Some of the Natural polymers includes DNA and RNA, Natural polymers are very much significant in all the life processes of all the living organisms.
Biopolymers are the types of polymers that are produced by living organisms. In other words they are also know as polymeric biomolecules. Biopolymers are generated from renewable sources and they are easily biodegradable because of the oxygen and nitrogen atoms originate in their structural backbone It is a biodegradable chemical compound that is observed as the most organic compound in the ecosphere. Biopolymer are primarily divided into two types, one is produced from living organisms and another is obtained from renewable resources but require polymerization.
Now we are at the beginning of new era of science that explores the behavior of material at their bottom, set new areas in technical applications of polymeric materials, and expose immense opportunities in the enactment and application of materials. Nanotechnology has currently acknowledged an exceptional interest of researchers, technology incubators and commercial organizations to step headfirst in introducing the materials containing nanocomposite structure and new performance standards. Other areas include polymer-based biomaterials, nanoparticle drug delivery, layer-by-layer self-assembled polymer films, miniemulsion particles, imprint lithography, polymer blends, fuel cell electrode polymer bound catalysts, electrospun nanofibers, and nanocomposites
Proteins are linear polymers built of monomer units so-called amino acids. The construction of a vast array of macromolecules or polymer structure from a limited number of monomer building blocks is a recurring theme in biochemistry. The function of a protein is directly dependent on its three dimensional structure unusually, proteins spontaneously wrinkle up into three-dimensional structures that are determined by the sequence of amino acids in the protein polymer. Thus, proteins are the embodiment of the evolution from the one-dimensional world of arrangement to the three-dimensional world of molecules capable of diverse activities. Proteins comprise of a wide range of functional groups. These functional groups include alcohols, carboxylic acids, thiols, thioethers, carboxamides, and variety of basic groups. For instance, the chemical reactivity associated with these groups is essential to the function of enzymes, the proteins that catalyse specific chemical reactions in biological systems
Bio-plastics are a form of plastic derived from renewable biomass source, such as vegetable oil, corn-starch, potato-starch rather than fossil-fuel plastics which are derived from petroleum Bio-plastics are biodegradable materials that come from renewable sources and can be used to lessen the problem of plastic waste that is suffocating the planet and polluting the environment. Bioplastics are made through different processes. Some use a microorganism to process base materials, such as vegetable oils, acids, cellulose, starches and alcohols. Bio plastics were mainly established in an effort to discovery a replacement for conventional plastics
Biodegradable polymers are a specific type of polymer that breaks down after its intended purpose to result in natural by-products such as gases (CO2, N2), water, biomass, and inorganic salts. These are found both naturally and synthetically made, and largely consist of ester, amide, and ether functional groups. Present and future advancements in biodegradable polymers and vast information materials center relate essentially to the scaling-up of creation and alter the item properties. Bigger scale generation will increase accessibility and diminish costs. Presently either bearable or manufactured beginning materials might be utilized to deliver biodegradable polymers. Two primary techniques might be followed in integrating a polymer. One is to develop the polymer structure from a monomer by a technique of concoction polymerization. Biodegradable properties and breakdown mechanism are determined by their exact structure. These polymers are often synthesized by condensation reactions, ring opening polymerization, and metal catalysts. There are vast examples and applications of biodegradable polymers.
Polymeric materials have been applied in therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue regeneration, for decades owing to their biocompatibility and suitable mechanical properties Numerous polymer–protein conjugates with improved stability and pharmacokinetic properties have been developed, for example, by anchoring enzymes or biologically relevant proteins to polyethylene glycol components (PEGylation). Garnering a detailed understanding of the various mechanisms by which multivalent polymers engage biological targets is certain to expand the role of polymers as therapeutics, by enabling highly specific activities of designed polymers in the biological environment.
Optical Imaging is the method in which light is being used to get the investigational imaging of the medical operations. Basically, optical imaging is of two types which are diffusive Imaging systems and ballistic imaging system. There are some surgical operations that are perplexing to perform with the conventional blade to perform difficult surgeries. Lasers were considered as most effective in operating on parts that are easy to reach-areas on the body's exterior, including the ears, skin, mouth, eyes and nose. Fibre lasers are basically different from other laser types; in a fibre laser the active medium that produces the laser beam is actually isolated within the fiber optic itself. This discriminates them from fiber-delivered lasers where the beam is merely transported from the laser resonator to the beam delivery optics
Material physics mainly describes the physical properties of materials whereas Materials chemistry implicates the use of chemistry for the design and synthesis of materials with interesting or potentially useful physical characteristics, such as magnetic, optical, structural or catalytic properties. current fields which materials physicists work in include magnetic materials, electronic, optical, and novel materials and structures, quantum phenomena in materials, non-equilibrium physics, and soft condensed matter physics. Material chemistry and physics also include the characterization, processing, performance, properties and molecular-level understanding of the substances. The traditional examples of materials are metals alloys, polymers, Composite material semiconductors, ceramics and glasses.
Asia-Pacific held a share of more than 44% in global polymers market in 2018, witnessing significant growth in the recent past. Globally, India is the third largest energy consumer due to increased consumption of petrochemicals and plastics primarily used for packaging in F&B industries. The current expansions in plastic polymers by Increasing urbanization, rising income and growing demand from the end-user segments are resulting in high growth and exponentially motivating the global plastic polymers market.
Noncovalent interactions provide a flexible means of engineering new chemical entities with tailored properties. Specific interactions between functionalized small molecules and polymer chains bearing complementary binding sites can be used to engineer supramolecular complexes that display mesomorph polymer structure. This has been exploited to develop a range of functional materials including photonic band gap polymers, ionic conductors and donor-acceptor semiconductors polymers. Additionally, the deliberate association of polymers with surfactants in engineered, synthetic materials is increasingly motivated by the possibility of combining the stimuli-responsive self-assembly and solubilizing properties of surfactants with the intrinsic solution properties of polymers, such as rheology medication and facile coating of interfaces. In solution, the hydrophobic Nature of the surfactant compared to a hydrophilic polymer backbone leads to coil-globule transitions on decreasing solvent quality, surfactants cluster and force small length scale intrachain associations, causing a sharp reduction in the end-end chain distance, i.e collapse.
Solid Waste Managements are the exercises and are the activities that are utilized to oversee squander materials from its constitution to its last circulation. This incorporates the gathering, transport, and treatment of waste together with watching and controlling of the waste administration process Waste can be in any structure that may be in solids, fluids, and as gases and these have various techniques for dispersion and the board, squander the executives manages squander materials like which originates from ventures, organic and family unit action The reusing procedure is the best procedure that includes in the Co. Plastic reusing is the way toward improving one of a kind assortments of plastic fabric to have the option to reprocess them into different other product, as opposed to their unique structure. A thing built from plastic is reused into an alternate item, which regularly can't be reused once more.