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Polymer characterization is the analytical branch of polymer science which includes determining molecular weight distribution, the molecular structure, the morphology of the polymer, thermal properties, mechanical properties, and any additives of Polymeric materials. Polymer characterization is done with a variety of experimental approaches.

  • Polymer molecular weight of characterization
  • Spectroscopy methods of characterization
  • Microscopy methods of characterization
  • Thermo-analytical methods of characterization
  • Mechanical properties methods of characterization

Mainly Polymers are composed of compounds of carbon, hydrogen and hydrocarbons. These are specifically made of carbon atoms bonded together, into long chains and one to the next other that are called the backbone of the polymer. Whereas the Functional polymers are those contains functional groups that have a greater polarity or reactivity than a classic hydrocarbon chain which improves their segregation, or reactivity. Physical properties of a polymer, such as its strength, flexibility, reactivity, Good corrosion resistance, lose dimensional tolerances, Poor tensile strength and transparency or in different colors depends on Chain length, Side groups, functional group attached and Cross-linking.

  • Thermoplastics and Thermosets
  • Anionic polymerization
  • Cationic polymerization
  • Free-radical polymerization
  • Co-ordinate polymerization
  • End-functionalized polymers
  • Inter-chain polymer formation

Polymer synthesis, also called polymerization, polymer synthesis occurs via a variety of reaction mechanisms that vary in complexity due to functional groups present in reacting compounds and their inherent steric effects. Both synthetic and natural polymer are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers, Coupling of monomers using their multiple bonds is known as addition polymerization coupling of monomers by reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule is called as condensation polymerization

  • Emulsion polymerization
  • Radical polymerization
  • Condensation polymer
  • Addition polymer
  • Chemical modification of polymers

Today, polymer are commonly used in thousands of products as plastics, elastomers, coating, and adhesive, no wonder polymer are found in everything from compact discs to high-tech aerospace application. Polymer testing, consultancy for plastics and additives with applications includes aerospace, electronics, packaging, automotive and medical devices

  • Application Of Polymer In Space
  • Application Of Polymer In Ocean
  • Application of polymer In agriculture
  • Application of polymer In electronics
  • Application of polymer In medical devices
  • Application of Polymer In automobile
  • Application of Polymer civil engineering

Materials science and engineering, involves the discovery and design of new materials, with an emphasis on solids and scientific study of the properties and applications of materials of construction or manufacture (such as ceramics, metals, polymers, and composites). Materials science is also an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis. In a broad sense, materials science involves studying the synthesis, processing, structure, properties and performance of materials. Properties of interest can be mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical and quantum mechanical. The outcome of such a study can directly impact the society in which we live and work, by benefiting the industries involved in electronics, communications, medicine, transportation, manufacturing, recreation, energy and environment.

  • Optoelectronic and magnetic materials
  • Materials for Energy
  • Structural materials
  • Graphene and fullerenes
  • Building engineering
  • Forensic engineering

Synthetic polymers are those which are human-made polymers. Synthetic polymers are those which consists of repeated structural units called as monomers. Synthetic polymers are sometimes referred as “plastics”, of which the well-known ones are nylon and polyethylene. There are various synthetic polymers developed so far such as Nylon, Polyvinyl Chloride, Low-Density Polyethylene Polypropylene

  • Reduce, reuse and recycle synthetic polymers
  • Polymer as synthetic fiber
  • Uses of Elastomer
  • Applications of non-biodegradable
  • Polyvinyl chloride Uses

Natural polymers occur in nature and can be extracted, The human body contains many natural polymers, such as proteins and nucleic acids. Cellulose, another natural polymer. Some of the Natural polymers includes DNA and RNA, Natural polymers are very much significant in all the life processes of all the living organisms.

  • Proteins and polypeptides
  • Collagen as natural polymer
  • Latex and its applications
  • Polysaccharides from plant origin cellulose
  • Starch properties and composition
  • Polyesters used in pharmaceutical blister packaging

Biopolymers are the types of polymers that are produced by living organisms. In other words they are also know as polymeric biomolecules. Biopolymers are generated from renewable sources and they are easily biodegradable because of the oxygen and nitrogen atoms originate in their structural backbone It is a biodegradable chemical compound that is observed as the most organic compound in the ecosphere. Biopolymer are primarily divided into two types, one is produced from living organisms and another is obtained from renewable resources but require polymerization.

  • Sugar based bio-polymers
  • Starch based bio-polymers
  • Biopolymers based on synthetic materials
  • Cellulose based biopolymers
  • Biopolymer Environmental Benefits

Bio-plastics are a form of plastic derived from renewable biomass source, such as vegetable oil, corn-starch, potato-starch rather than fossil-fuel plastics which are derived from petroleum Bio-plastics are biodegradable materials that come from renewable sources and can be used to lessen the problem of plastic waste that is suffocating the planet and polluting the environment. Bioplastics are made through different processes. Some use a microorganism to process base materials, such as vegetable oils, acids, cellulose, starches and alcohols. Bio plastics were mainly established in an effort to discovery a replacement for conventional plastics

  • Uses of bio plastics
  • Application of bio-plastics
  • Disadvantages of bio-plastics
  • Polynucleotides, polypeptides & polysaccharides

  • Petrochemical-based products
  • Erosion of biodegradable bulk-eroding polymers
  • Disposable packaging materials
  • Biodegradability and toxicology
  • Bioresorbable polymers for medical applications
  • Degradation using non-invasive fluorescence imaging

Now we are at the beginning of new era of science that explores the behavior of material at their bottom, set new areas in technical applications of polymeric materials, and expose immense opportunities in the enactment and application of materials. Nanotechnology has currently acknowledged an exceptional interest of researchers, technology incubators and commercial organizations to step headfirst in introducing the materials containing nanocomposite structure and new performance standards. Other areas include polymer-based biomaterials, nanoparticle drug delivery, layer-by-layer self-assembled polymer films, miniemulsion particles, imprint lithography, polymer blends, fuel cell electrode polymer bound catalysts, electrospun nanofibers, and nanocomposites

  • Clay-based polymer nanocomposites
  • Nanocomposite formation: exfoliation
  • Application of novel polymeric nanoparticles
  • Polymer–nanoshell composites for photothermally drug delivery
  • Carbon nanofiber and carbon nanoparticles
  • Polymer matrix based nanocomposites
  • Smart nanotubes for bioseparations and biocatalysis

Proteins are linear polymers built of monomer units so-called amino acids. The construction of a vast array of macromolecules or polymer structure from a limited number of monomer building blocks is a recurring theme in biochemistry. The function of a protein is directly dependent on its three dimensional structure unusually, proteins spontaneously wrinkle up into three-dimensional structures that are determined by the sequence of amino acids in the protein polymer. Thus, proteins are the embodiment of the evolution from the one-dimensional world of arrangement to the three-dimensional world of molecules capable of diverse activities. Proteins comprise of a wide range of functional groups. These functional groups include alcohols, carboxylic acids, thiols, thioethers, carboxamides, and variety of basic groups. For instance, the chemical reactivity associated with these groups is essential to the function of enzymes, the proteins that catalyse specific chemical reactions in biological systems

  • Schematic models of biochemical polymers
  • Sequence-controlled polymers
  • Polymer microfluidic chips for biochemical analyses
  • Enzymes for the bio functionalization
  • Synthetic polyester-hydrolyzing enzymes
  • Impact-resistant medical devices

  • Polymers in diagnostics
  • Medical Device and Pharmaceutical Testing
  • Dental polymer & dendrimers
  • Biomedical hydrogels and applications
  • Implanted polymers for drug delivery
  • Dental polymer dendrimers concepts

  • Applications of Polymers as Fibers
  • Thermoplastic elastomers
  • Optical moulding and product finishing processes
  • Applications of Polymers in Optics
  • Applications of Polymers in Laser

Material physics mainly describes the physical properties of materials whereas Materials chemistry implicates the use of chemistry for the design and synthesis of materials with interesting or potentially useful physical characteristics, such as magnetic, optical, structural or catalytic properties. current fields which materials physicists work in include magnetic materials, electronic, optical, and novel materials and structures, quantum phenomena in materials, non-equilibrium physics, and soft condensed matter physics. Material chemistry and physics also include the characterization, processing, performance, properties and molecular-level understanding of the substances. The traditional examples of materials are metals alloys, polymers, Composite material semiconductors, ceramics and glasses.

  • Condensed matter physics
  • Mechanics of materials
  • Graphene material science
  • Modern materials chemistry
  • Applied physics

  • Recycling of plastic waste by density separation
  • Pyrolysis: thermal cracking of polymers