Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Children has a recurring or persistent disease caused by an infectious agent such as bacteria, a fungus, a parasite, or other rare infection, a pediatric infectious diseases specialist has the experience and qualifications to help the pediatrician diagnose and treat children. Pediatric infectious diseases specialists treat children from birth through the teen years.
A Pediatric Gastroenterologist manages digestive health in children. This field covers the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract including the hepatobiliary-pancreatic systems (e.g., hepatitis and pancreatitis) and nutritional disorders (e.g., malnutrition and obesity). Specifically, patients may have a wide array of disorders ranging from acute (e.g., GI bleeding) or chronic disorders (e.g., Crohn disease), low (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome) or high acuity (e.g., liver failure) problems. The Pediatric Gastroenterologist also performs a variety of endoscopic and other diagnostic (e.g., motility) and therapeutic (e.g., foreign body removal, polypectomy, injection therapy, gastrostomy placement) procedures. Some patients have liver failure requiring artificial liver support or hepatic transplant, while others have short bowel syndrome and intestinal failure requiring chronic intravenous nutrition, enteral tube feeding, or small intestinal or multivisceral transplant. Pediatric Gastroenterologists typically work collaboratively with dieticians, speech therapists, psychologists, endocrinologists, pulmonologists, otolaryngologists, surgeons, other subspecialists, and primary care doctors to provide ongoing subspecialty care for their patients.
Pediatric surgery is the medical specialty concerned with the surgical treatment of infants, children and adolescents. Pediatric surgeons are the healthcare providers responsible for carrying out these procedures after crafting a pre-operative plan based on the patient’s findings. The surgery may be divided into several different areas of expertise.
Pediatric neurology or child neurology refers to a specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of neurological conditions in neonates (newborns), infants, children and adolescents. The discipline of child neurology encompasses diseases and disorders of the spinal cord, brain, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, muscles and blood vessels that affect individuals in these age groups.
A pediatric cardiologist specializes in caring for children with conditions and diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Pediatric cardiologists diagnose and treat many heart diseases and problems from the fetal period through adulthood, including cardiac arrhythmias and congenital heart disease. When heart surgery is needed, pediatric cardiologists work closely with specialized pediatric heart surgeons to provide comprehensive care. Pediatric cardiologists are also experts in preventing and treating risk factors for adult heart disease in children.
Pediatric Allergic Reaction
A paediatric allergy, immunology and infectious diseases (PAIID) specialist is a clinician who works across all paediatric age groups to investigate, diagnose and manage infectious, immunological and allergic disorders. They work in both inpatient and outpatient settings, with acute and chronic presentations of disease, and provide specialist regional advice in a model of shared care with local hospitals. Most specialists will have one primary area of interest (allergy, immunology or infection), but will have core training in all three areas. PAIID paediatricians usually practice in multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) in centres with co-located specialty disciplines, including paediatric intensive care units (PICU) and adult allergy, immunology and infectious disease (AIID) specialists, and supporting services eg immunology, microbiology and virology laboratories.
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
Neonatal abstinence syndrome is also called NAS is a group of conditions caused when a baby withdraws from certain drugs he’s exposed to in the womb before birth. NAS is most often caused when a woman takes drugs called opioids during pregnancy. But it also can be caused by antidepressants, barbiturates, or benzodiazepines. When you take these drugs during pregnancy, they can pass through the placenta and cause serious problems for your baby. The placenta grows in your uterus (womb) and supplies your baby with food and oxygen through the umbilical cord. If you’ve been injured or had surgery, your provider may give you a prescription for opioids to help relieve pain. Prescription opioids include:
Neonatal nursing is a subspecialty of nursing that works with new-born infants born with a variety of problems ranging from prematurity, birth defects, infection, cardiac malformations, and surgical problems. The neonatal period is defined as the first month of life; however, these newborns are often sick for months. Neonatal nursing generally encompasses care for those infants who experience problems shortly after birth, but it also encompasses care for infants who experience long-term problems related to their prematurity or illness after birth.
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)
A neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), also known as an intensive care nursery (ICN), is an intensive care unit (ICU) specializing in the care of ill or premature new-born infants. Neonatal refers to the first 28 days of life. Neonatal care, as known as specialized nurseries or intensive care, has been around since the 1960s. The first American newborn intensive care unit, designed by Louis Gluck, was opened in October 1960 at Yale-New Haven Hospital. NICU is typically directed by one or more neonatologists and staffed by resident physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, physician assistants, respiratory therapists, and dieticians. Many other ancillary disciplines and specialists are available at larger units.
Primary Care in Dental
Dentistry is neither an allied health profession nor a paramedical profession. It is the only anatomically focused health care profession that is university-based and for which primary care responsibility is maintained by the profession. Dentists must have a reliable knowledge of basic clinical medicine for safely and effectively treating individuals with chronic and other diseases, which make them biologically and pharmacologically compromised. With changes in the life expectancy of people and lifestyles, as well as rapid advancement in biomedical sciences, dentists should have similar knowledge like a physician in any other fields of medicine
Primary Care in Epidemiology
Primary care epidemiology can contribute to wider improvements in health and healthcare services, through a better understanding of disease etiology, use of healthcare services, and the role of different healthcare interventions. Typically this provider acts as the first contact and principal point of continuing care for patients within a health care system and coordinates other specialist care that the patient may need. Patients commonly receive primary care from professionals such as a primary care physician, a nurse practitioner, or a physician assistant. In some localities, such a professional may be a registered nurse, a pharmacist, a clinical officer, or an Ayurveda or other traditional medicine professional.
Primary Care in Optometry
The primary care” is a term that enjoys widespread use in optometry as well as in medicine. In optometry, however, the root meaning of primary care is not always well understood. Unfortunately, all too often the words “primary care” are used in reference only to medically related eye treatment. This is a very limiting view of the scope of primary eye care. In fact, primary eye care encompasses the broad scope of optometric practice. A narrow view of primary care as that part of the eye and vision care related to medical diagnosis and treatment of the eye can inappropriately and misleadingly limit the view of the profession from within the profession and outside of it.
Primary Healthcare in Nursing
Primary health care is an exciting and fulfilling area for nurses to work in. The opportunities to grow long-term relationships with patients, to help people manage their health within their own communities, not to mention that primary health care is constantly evolving and offers opportunities to work in a wide variety of settings and to collaborate with a host of other health and social care providers and arguably best of all, you can be involved in people's lives, not just their illnesses. Being so varied, it can be a little tricky to know where to begin when it comes to primary health care. Here we examine the many roles of the primary health care nurse.
Primary Care in Infectious Diseases
This clinically oriented course provides primary care clinicians with strategies, updates, and specific practice recommendations to improve diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of common infectious diseases. Primary care providers frequently face challenges in infectious diseases -- these include escalating resistance to antibiotics, emerging pathogens (including the novel coronavirus), new diagnostic studies, and recently approved drugs with novel mechanisms of action and potentially unrecognized adverse effects. This course enhances attendee knowledge and competency through a comprehensive overview of infections seen in ambulatory practice, covering new areas of controversy and recent advances and developments in the field.
Primary Care in Behavioral Services
The primary care behavioral health (PCBH) consultation model is a psychological approach to population-based clinical health care that is simultaneously co-located, collaborative, and integrated within the primary care clinic. The goal of PCBH is to improve and promote overall health within the general population. This approach is important because approximately half of all patients in primary care present with psychiatric comorbidities, and 60% of psychiatric illness is treated in primary care. Primary care practice has traditionally adopted a generalist approach whereby physicians are trained in the medical model and solutions to problems typically involve medications, procedures, and advice. Appointment times are short, intending to see a large number of patients in a day. Many patients present with behavioral health care needs that may overlap with medical disorders and that may exacerbate, complicate, or masquerade as physical symptoms. Also, many medical problems present with associated psychological squeal such as stress, emotional reactions, dysfunctional lifestyle behaviors, that are amenable to change through behavioral interventions that can improve outcomes for these health problems.