Acute kidney injury (AKI), also known as acute renal failure (ARF), is a sudden and unexpected loss of kidney function which may develop within a week. It causes a build-up of waste products in your blood and makes it hard for your kidneys to keep the right balance of fluid in your body. It is commonly diagnosed through the accumulation of urea and creatinine or reduced urine output, or both. Acute kidney injury may lead to several kidney problems, including high potassium levels, metabolic acidosis; affect other organs such as the brain, heart, lungs and ultimately leading to death. Patients who have experienced acute kidney injury may have high potential of suffering from chronic kidney disease in their future. Controlling measures include treatment of the root cause and supportive care, such as kidney transplantation.
The term “chronic kidney disease” means lasting damage to the kidneys that can get worse over time. It also called chronic kidney failure, describes the gradual loss of kidney function. It comprises of conditions that damage kidneys and impair their ability to maintain hygiene by abnormality in functions. When chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes can build up in your body. Such conditions cause issues like anaemia, high blood pressure, weak bones, nerve damage and poor nutritional health. Also, kidney disease elevates the risk of having coronary disease and heart problems. These problems may occur gradually over a long period of time. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two main causes of chronic kidney disease.
Kidney Transplant or Renal Transplant is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD). Kidney transplant is typically classified as deceased-donor (formerly known as cadaveric) or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ. Living-donor kidney transplants are further characterized as genetically related (living-related) or non-related (living-unrelated) transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient. Before receiving a kidney transplant, a person with ESRD must undergo a thorough medical evaluation to make sure that they are healthy enough to undergo transplant surgery. If they are deemed a good candidate, they can be placed on a waiting list to receive a kidney from a deceased donor.
The Paediatric Nephrology section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including controlled trials and case control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section.
Diabetic Nephropathy (Diabetic Kidney disease) is kidney damage that results from having diabetes. In this condition the kidneys leak abnormal quantity of protein from blood into the urine. The role of kidney is to clean your blood. In case they are damaged, waste and fluids accumulate in your blood with out of leaving from your body. If the kidney damage by diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. Usually it starts long before you have notice symptoms. The beginning sign of it is small quantity of protein in urine. By urine test we can detect diabetic nephropathy or blood test can also determine the functioning of kidneys.
Diabetic kidney disease session covers diabetic nephropathy, diabetes mellitus (clinical), diabetic nephropathy–biomarkers of disease, intensive management of blood glucose, genetics of kidney disease–diabetic kidney disease, hypertension-clinical and experimental models, renal haemodynamic and vascular physiology.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels and they include:
Heart attacks and strokes are usually acute events and are mainly caused by a blockage that prevents blood from flowing to the heart or brain. The most common reason for this is a build-up of fatty deposits on the inner walls of the blood vessels that supply the heart or brain. Strokes can also be caused by bleeding from a blood vessel in the brain or from blood clots. The cause of heart attacks and strokes are usually the presence of a combination of risk factors, such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol, hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia.
Nephrology nursing involves both preventing disease and assessing the health needs of patients and their families. Care spans the life cycle and involves patients who are experiencing the real or threatened impact of acute or chronic kidney disease; therefore, nephrology nurses must be well-educated, highly skilled, and motivated. These nurses also deal with every organ system in the body, bringing about a holistic approach in patient care which is both challenging and rewarding.