A biopsy is a sample of tissue taken from the body in order to examine it more closely. A doctor should recommend a biopsy when an initial test suggests an area of tissue in the body isn't normal. Doctors may call an area of abnormal tissue a lesion, a tumor, or a mass.A biopsy is a sample of tissue taken from the body in order to examine it more closely. A doctor should recommend a biopsy when an initial test suggests an area of tissue in the body isn't normal.
Cytopathology and Histopathology
Cytopathology and histopathology supplement and complement each other. Cytologic evaluation should identify altered cells and from these cells one may be able to recognize a disease process. In fact, from this evaluation one may be able to synthesize the histopathologic picture.Histopathology is the diagnosis and study of diseases of the tissues, and involves examining tissues and/or cells under a microscope.
Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse. A post mortem is performed by a medical examiner, usually during the investigation of criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions.The forensic pathologist is a subspecialist in pathology whose area of special competence is the examination of persons who die suddenly, unexpectedly or violently. The forensic pathologist is an expert in determining cause and manner of death.
Dermatopathology is a subspecialty of pathology. Pathology is the study of diseases. It includes the study of the causes, course and progression and the complications that arise from the disease.The standard required to pass the Diploma in Dermatopathology is that of a medical expert specialist offering a diagnostic opinion in dermatopathology to local and often more distant colleagues. Candidates for the examination will be expected to demonstrate considerable knowledge in all aspects of dermatopathology, at a standard beyond that required to pass the FRCPath examination in histopathology.
Neuropathology covers the study of diseases in the central (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Neuropathologists spend most of their time making diagnoses of tumours, inflammatory disorders and infections.Neuropathologists are increasingly becoming part of research teams looking into neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Huntingdon’s and Parkinson’s. They’re continually striving make patients’ lives better.
The Pulmonary Pathology Unit of the Department of Pathology and Cell Biology provides experience with a wide variety of diagnostic material in both neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases of adult and pediatric cases, including congenital diseases.Four general categories of diseases of the lung can be classified into: obstructive lung disease; restrictive lung disease; infectious disease; and neoplastic disease.
The Renal Pathology Laboratory of the Department of Pathology and Cell Biology specializes in the diagnosis of medical diseases of the kidney. The practice of nephropathology centers on diverse nonneoplastic kidney disorders affecting the glomerular, tubulo-interstitial, and vascular compartments.
Hematopathology is the study of diseases and disorders affecting and found in blood cells, their production, and any organs and tissues involved in hematopoiesis, such as bone marrow, the spleen, and the thymus. Diagnoses and treatment of diseases such as leukemia and lymphoma often deal with hematopathology; techniques and technologies include flow cytometry studies and immunohistochemistr.
Laboratory Quality Indicators
A quality indicator is defined as an objective measure evaluating critical health care domains as defined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) (patient safety, effectiveness, equity, patient centeredness, timeliness, and efficiency).Laboratory test plays an extreme role in diagnosis as the accuracy of the result thus helps in the monitoring the patient condition resulting in reducing the risk and error in treatment.
Equipment’s and measures
A measuring instrument is a device to measure a physical quantity. In the physical sciences, quality assurance, and engineering, measurement is the activity of obtaining and comparing physical quantities of real-world objects and events. Established standard objects and events are used as units, and the process of measurement gives a number relating the item under study and the referenced unit of measurement. Measuring instruments, and formal test methods which define the instrument's use, are the means by which these relations of numbers are obtained.