Humanoid Robot Systems
A humanoid robot is a robot with its body shape built to resemble the human body. The design may be for functional purposes, such as interacting with human tools and environments, for experimental purposes, such as the study of bipedal locomotion, or for other purposes. In general, humanoid robots have a torso, a head, two arms, and two legs, though some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up. Some humanoid robots also have heads designed to replicate human facial features such as eyes and mouths. Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble humans.
Humanoid robots, especially those with artificial intelligence algorithms, could be useful for future dangerous and/or distant space exploration missions, without having the need to turn back around again and return to Earth once the mission is completed.
The study of collaborative processes in human and robot agents work together to achieve shared goals. Many new applications for robots require them to work alongside people as capable members of human-robot teams. These include robots for homes, hospitals, and offices, space exploration and manufacturing. Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) is an interdisciplinary research area comprising classical robotics, human-computer interaction, artificial intelligence, design, cognitive sciences and psychology.
Industrial applications of human-robot collaboration involve Collaborative Robots, or cobots, that physically interact with humans in a shared workspace to complete tasks such as collaborative manipulation or object handovers.
How Robot change your life.?
Nowadays we are existing in the smart machine era. Robots are playing a wide and dynamic role in our daily life. It feels like the science mechanism is come to be a reality. Robots are gradually coming closer to us as good technology exists to manage the functions of their home. As technology becomes a lot of advancing, it's clear that the world is changing and there's a good possibility that robots will be working in ordinary people's homes within the next decade or so. The main discussion of the session is how robots form into an important partner in our journey and the way they are helping to us to change our life.
Human Detection and Tracking
Human detection and tracking are tasks of computer vision systems for locating and following people in video imagery. Human detection is the task of locating all instances of human beings present in an image, and it has been most widely accomplished by searching all locations in the image, at all possible scales, and comparing a small area at each location with known templates or patterns of people. Human tracking is the process of temporally associating the human detections within a video sequence to generate persistent paths, or trajectories, of the people. Human detection and tracking are generally considered the first two processes in a video surveillance pipeline, and can feed into higher-level reasoning modules such as action recognition and dynamic scene analysis.
Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. The term may also be applied to any machine that exhibits traits associated with a human mind such as learning and problem-solving.Artificial intelligence is a region of software engineering that emphasizes the production of intelligent machines that work and respond like people. Artificial intelligence is expert in studying how human brain thinks, learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem, and then using the products of this study as a source of increasing smart software and systems. In real life, knowledge has some undesirable properties.
A sensor network comprises a group of small, powered devices, and a wireless or wired networked infrastructure. They record conditions in any number of environments including industrial facilities, farms, and hospitals. The sensor network connects to the internet or computer networks to transfer data for analysis and use.
Sensor network nodes cooperatively sense and control the environment. They enable interaction between persons or computers and the surrounding environment.
Sensor networks can be wired or wireless. Wired sensor networks use ethernet cables to connect sensors. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) use technologies such as Bluetooth, cellular, wifi or near field communication (NFC) to connect sensors.
WSNs are easier to deploy and maintain and offer better flexibility of devices. With the rapid development of sensors and wireless technologies, WSNs have become a key technology of the IoT. WSNs don't need the physical network infrastructure to be modified.
Cognitive modeling is an area of computer science that deals with simulating human problem-solving and mental processing in a computerized model. Such a model can be used to simulate or predict human behavior or performance on tasks similar to the ones modeled and improve human-computer interaction.
Cognitive modeling is used in numerous artificial intelligence (AI) applications, such as expert systems, natural language processing, neural networks, and in robotics and virtual reality applications. Cognitive models are also used to improve products in manufacturing segments, such as human factors, engineering, and computer game and user interface design.
Robot learning is a research field at the intersection of machine learning and robotics. It studies techniques allowing a robot to acquire novel skills or adapt to its environment through learning algorithms. The embodiment of the robot, situated in a physical embedding, provides at the same time specific difficulties (e.g. high-dimensionality, real time constraints for collecting data and learning) and opportunities for guiding the learning process (e.g. sensorimotor synergies, motor primitives).
Robot learning can be closely related to adaptive control, reinforcement learning as well as developmental robotics which considers the problem of autonomous lifelong acquisition of repertoires of skills.
Machine learning is a branch of artificial intelligence (AI) focused on building applications that learn from data and improve their accuracy over time without being programmed to do so.
In data science, an algorithm is a sequence of statistical processing steps. In machine learning, algorithms are 'trained' to find patterns and features in massive amounts of data in order to make decisions and predictions based on new data. The better the algorithm, the more accurate the decisions and predictions will become as it processes more data.
Deep learning is a class of machine learning algorithms that uses multiple layers to progressively extract higher-level features from the raw input. For example, in image processing, lower layers may identify edges, while higher layers may identify the concepts relevant to a human such as digits or letters or faces.
Most modern deep learning models are based on artificial neural networks, specifically convolutional neural networks (CNN)s, although they can also include propositional formulas or latent variables organized layer-wise in deep generative models such as the nodes in deep belief networks and deep Boltzmann machines.
Neurorobotics, a combined study of neuroscience, robotics, and artificial intelligence, is the science and technology of embodied autonomous neural systems. Neurorobotics, a combined study of neuroscience, robotics, and artificial intelligence, is the science and technology of embodied autonomous neural systems.
Neurorobotics is that branch of neuroscience with robotics, which deals with the study and application of science and technology of embodied autonomous neural systems like brain-inspired algorithms. At its core, neurorobotics is based on the idea that the brain is embodied and the body is embedded in the environment. Therefore, most neurorobots are required to function in the real world, as opposed to a simulated environment.
The research of swarm robotics is to study the design of robots, their physical body and their controlling behaviours. It is inspired but not limited by the emergent behaviour observed in social insects, called swarm intelligence. Relatively simple individual rules can produce a large set of complex swarm behaviours. A key component is the communication between the members of the group that build a system of constant feedback. The swarm behaviour involves constant change of individuals in cooperation with others, as well as the behaviour of the whole group.
Unlike distributed robotic systems in general, swarm robotics emphasizes a large number of robots, and promotes scalability, for instance by using only local communication. That local communication for example can be achieved by wireless transmission systems, like radio frequency or infrared.
Soft Robotics is the specific subfield of robotics dealing with constructing robots from highly compliant materials, similar to those found in living organisms.
Soft robotics draws heavily from the way in which living organisms move and adapt to their surroundings. In contrast to robots built from rigid materials, soft robots allow for increased flexibility and adaptability for accomplishing tasks, as well as improved safety when working around humans. These characteristics allow for its potential use in the fields of medicine and manufacturing.
Service robots assist human beings, typically by performing a job that is dirty, dull, distant, dangerous or repetitive, including household chores. They typically are autonomous and/or operated by a built-in control system, with manual override options. The term "service robot" does not have a strict technical definition. The International Organization for Standardization defines a “service robot” as a robot “that performs useful tasks for humans or equipment excluding industrial automation applications”.
A medical robot is a robot used in the medical sciences. They include surgical robots. These are in most telemanipulators, which use the surgeon's activators on one side to control the "effector" on the other side.
Surgical robots: These robots either allow surgical operations to be carried out with better precision than an unaided human surgeon or allow remote surgery where a human surgeon is not physically present with the patient.
Rehabilitation robots: facilitate and support the lives of infirm, elderly people, or those with dysfunction of body parts affecting movement. These robots are also used for rehabilitation and related procedures, such as training and therapy.
Biorobots: a group of robots designed to imitate the cognition of humans and animals.
Telepresence robots: allow off-site medical professionals to move, look around, communicate, and participate from remote locations.
Pharmacy automation: robotic systems to dispense oral solids in a retail pharmacy setting or preparing sterile IV admixtures in a hospital pharmacy setting.
Companion robot: has the capability to engage emotionally with users keeping them company and alerting if there is a problem with their health.
Disinfection robot: has the capability to disinfect a whole room in mere minutes, generally using pulsed ultraviolet light. They are being used to fight Ebola virus disease.
An industrial robot is a robot system used for manufacturing. Industrial robots are automated, programmable and capable of movement on three or more axes.
Typical applications of robots include welding, painting, assembly, disassembly, pick and place for printed circuit boards, palletizing, packaging and labeling,, product inspection, and testing; all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision. They can assist in material handling.
In the year 2020, an estimated 1.64 million industrial robots were in operation worldwide according to International Federation of Robotics.
Types and features:
There are some types of industrial robots.
Cartesian coordinate robots
Cylindrical coordinate robots
Spherical coordinate robots
Role of Automation in Robotics
During the modern generation, the majority of manufacturing activities in fabrication, forming, machining, and assembly facilities will be a dangerous challenge. Industrial Robots have been used for about 50 years. Industrial Robots have come to play an extensive and crucial role in many industrial operations. Robots can be used in any situation and for any purpose, but today many are used in dangerous environments, manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot persist. Robots can take on any form but some are made to be like humans in appearance. This is said to help in the acceptance of a robot in certain replicative behaviors usually performed by people. Such robots attempt to repeat walking, lifting, speech, cognition, and basically anything a human can do. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature, contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics.
Robotics and Automation in Agriculture
An agricultural robot is a robot deployed for agricultural purposes. The main area of application of robots in agriculture today is at the harvesting stage. Emerging applications of robots or drones in agriculture include weed control, cloud seeding, planting seeds, harvesting, environmental monitoring and soil analysis. According to Verified Market Research, the agricultural robots market is expected to reach $11.58 billion by 2025.
Robots can also be used in livestock applications (livestock robotics) such as automatic milking, washing and castrating. Robots like these have many benefits for the agricultural industry, including a higher quality of fresh produce, lower production costs, and a decreased need for manual labor.