Interventional Cardiology and Endovascular Interventions
Interventional cardiology can be defined as an area of medicine within the subspecialty of cardiology that uses specialized imaging and other diagnostic techniques to evaluate blood flow and pressure in the coronary arteries and chambers of the heart, as well as technical procedures and medications to treat abnormalities that impair the function of the cardiovascular system. It deals specifically with the catheter-based treatment of heart diseases.
Endovascular surgery is an innovative, less invasive procedure used to treat problems affecting the blood vessels, such as an aneurysm, which is a swelling or "ballooning" of the blood vessel. The surgery involves making a small incision near each hip to access the blood vessels. An endovascular graft, which is a special fabric tube device framed with stainless steel self-expanding stents, is inserted through the arteries in a catheter, a long, narrow flexible tube, and positioned inside the aorta.
Heart Disease and Heart Failure
Heart diseases are the disorders that have an effect on your heart. Diseases below the center disease umbrella embrace vas diseases, like blood vessel disease; rhythm issues (arrhythmias); and heart defects you're born with i.e. Rheumatic heart disease, inborn heart defects, ischemic heart condition, vas diseases, and heart generation. Heart failure could also be a condition during which your heart cannot pump enough blood to satisfy your body's wants. The term “Heart failure” doesn’t mean that your heart has stopped or it's on the point of finish off. However, coronary failure may be a serious condition that needs treatment.
Cardiac Imaging and Arrhythmias
The optimal diagnostic approach for patients with stable chest pain and intermediate probability for coronary artery disease (CAD) is uncertain. In a trial that randomly assigned over 3500 such patients to initial coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) or invasive angiography, procedure-related complications were less frequent with CCTA, while rates of cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke) after 3.5 years and rates of patient-reported angina during the last four weeks of the trial were similar between the groups. CCTA may be an appropriate diagnostic test for patients with stable chest pain and intermediate risk of CAD, particularly if they have a high risk of procedural complications.
Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is common and associated with thromboembolic complications, whether and how to screen patients for AF remain uncertain. In a trial that randomly assigned over 30,000 patients ≥65 years of age to AF screening with a single-lead handheld electrocardiogram during vital sign assessment or to usual care, rates of new AF diagnoses over 12 months were similar between the groups (1.72 versus 1.59 percent, respectively). However, in a subgroup analysis, new AF diagnoses were more frequent with screening among patients ≥85 years old (5.56 versus 3.76 percent). As the incidence of thromboembolic complications was not assessed in this short-term study, additional studies are needed to determine whether screening older adults for AF improves health outcomes.
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery
Patients with elevated troponin levels after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have a worse prognosis than those with lower levels; however, the threshold of elevated troponin that identifies patients with periprocedural myocardial infarction or at risk for early postoperative mortality has been uncertain. In a study of nearly 14,000 cardiac surgery patients that examined the association between postoperative day 1 troponin I levels and 30-day mortality, the threshold troponin associated with a higher mortality risk was 5670 ng/L (or 218 times the upper reference limit) among patients undergoing CABG and 12,981 ng/L (499 times the upper reference limit) among those undergoing other cardiac surgeries. These troponin I levels that predict 30-day mortality are markedly higher than those demonstrated in prior studies, which may in part reflect differences in the troponin assays used in these studies.
Preventive cardiology is the knowledge related to the prevention of cardiovascular disease, either its manifestation or its progression with the aim to avert life-threatening cardiovascular events and to reduce cardiac mortality. Preventive cardiology also calls for a different approach to our patients: it aims to influence the underlying systemic disease process of atherosclerosis, of which the acute events are just short manifestations. It focuses on the improvement of long term outcome rather than acute symptomatic relief and may have a greater impact on patient longevity than sophisticated interventions.
Cardiovascular and Emergency Medicine
Cardiovascular medicine is the most comprehensive provider of cardiovascular services specializing in the prevention, detection, management and treatment of adult cardiovascular diseases. It is also a platform for postgraduate education and scientific work in the fields of cardiology, angiology, hypertension and cardiac and vascular surgery.
Emergency medicine, also known as accident and emergency medicine, is the medical speciality concerned with the care of illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention. Emergency physicians care for unscheduled and undifferentiated patients of all ages.
Cardiac Surgery and Heart Transplantation
A surgical procedure that is performed to resolve a health concern related to the heart is called a heart surgery or a heart operation. Heart surgery may involve:
Heart transplantation is a surgery to remove the diseased heart from a person and replace it with a healthy one from an organ donor. To remove the heart from the donor, two or more healthcare providers must declare the donor brain-dead. Before you can be put on a waiting list for a heart transplant, a healthcare provider makes the decision that this is the best treatment choice for your heart failure. A healthcare team also makes sure that you are healthy enough to go through the transplant process.
Hypertension and Obesity
Hypertension is a major condition that significantly increases the risks of heart, brain, kidney and other diseases. Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries.
Obesity is a disease including an excessive amount of body fat. Obesity is a health problem that increases risk of other diseases and health problems like heart disease, high blood pressure, certain cancers, and diabetes.
Causes of Obesity:
Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders
Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders
Cardiovascular diseases: Cardiovascular diseases involve the heart and blood vessels. Now it is the common cause of death. Age, sex, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity are factors of heart diseases. Heart attacks and strokes are mainly caused by blood vessel blockage that stops blood from flowing to the heart or brain. Symptoms include: chest pain, discomfort on arms, left shoulder, elbows, jaw or back, difficulties in breathing, feeling sick or vomiting. People facing these symptoms should look for medical care immediately.
Some of the cardiovascular diseases:
Cardiology Market Trends and R&D
The widespread prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) on account of sedentary lifestyles, and unhealthy dietary patterns and habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, represents the primary factor driving the market growth. Besides this, the growing geriatric population is another major growth-inducing factor as they are more susceptible to chronic heart ailments. Additionally, there has been a significant increase in the adoption of home healthcare devices. Along with this, the rising need for compact cardiovascular devices that enable patient mobility and simultaneously provide real-time data is augmenting the product demand. Furthermore, the leading players are focusing on research and development (R&D) activities to launch innovative product variants integrated with advanced technologies and features, thereby contributing to the market growth. Moreover, the rising awareness regarding the available cardiovascular devices among the masses and the shifting preferences toward minimally invasive (MI) procedures are accelerating the product adoption rates. Other factors, including the launch of wireless ECG, growing demand for continuous and home-based monitoring, and technological advancements, are also creating a positive market outlook.