Gastroenterology is the study of the normal function and diseases. It contains a complete understanding of the typical action (physiology) of the gastrointestinal organs containing the programme of material through the stomach and intestine (motility), the digestion and absorption of nutrients into the body, removal of waste from the system, and the occupation of the liver as a digestive organ. It contains common and significant disorders such as colon polyps and cancer, hepatitis, Gastroesophageal reflux (heartburn), peptic ulcer disease, colitis, gallbladder and biliary tract disease, nutritional problems, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), and pancreatitis. Increases, all common activity and disease of the digestive organs are part of the study of Gastroenterology.
In many complex diseases it is observed that commensal Microbiota composition is altered. Here are just some of the health conditions that involve our microbes. Our new understanding may lead to more focused and effective treatments. Unlike modern antibiotics, which kill good microbes along with the bad, new drugs may kill only harmful bacteria while leaving the friendly ones alone. Others may nurture friendly bacteria, helping them out-compete the harmful ones.
This is divided into 7 sections: the production of acid in the stomach, the regulation of gastric acid secretion, the pharmacology of acid secretion, the biology of acid-related diseases, gastric and duodenal ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Helicobacter pylori. Each of these sections is exceptionally well written and provides historical insights into the various areas. For example, the first section points out that Paracelsus was one of the first to relate chemistry to disease. Section 2 presents an accounting of William Beaumont’s study of the gastric fistula in Alexis Saint Martin, which was the result of a gunshot wound. Also included in this section is the accounting of Pavlov’s delineation of vagal function in relation to the GI tract. Other important milestones of gastric physiology that are recounted include Codes’ study of the relationship of histamine to gastric secretion and the work of Bayle’s and Starling in identifying the hormone secretin. In Section 2, gastric acid secretion and its neural and endocrine regulation are covered in a comprehensive manner as are all aspects of parietal cell function. The history of the therapeutic approach to acid-related diseases is detailed in Section 3 and includes the Sippy diet, antacids, sulfated polysaccharide (sucralfate), histamine H2 receptor antagonists, and proton pump inhibitors along with surgery. Section 4 deals with the barrier function of the upper GI tract, intragastric pH, pepsin, intrinsic factor, and regulation of the growth of gastric epithelium. The final section deals with Helicobacter pylori and covers its well-known history and the consequences of gastric colonization along, with the pathogenesis and treatment options.
Gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleed), also known as gastrointestinal haemorrhage, is all forms of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum. When there is significant blood loss over a short time, symptoms may include vomiting red blood, vomiting black blood, bloody stool, or black stool. Bleeding is typically divided into two main types: upper gastrointestinal bleeding and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Causes of upper GI bleeds include: peptic ulcer disease, oesophageal varices due to liver cirrhosis and cancer, among others. Causes of lower GI bleeds include: haemorrhoids, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease among others.
Neuro-gastroenterology encloses the study of the brain, It works on the "brain of the gut," which is a part of the nervous system and controls motility, endocrine secretions, and microcirculation of the gastrointestinal system. the gut and their interactions in relevance to the consideration and management of gastrointestinal motility and functional gastrointestinal disorders. It mainly focuses on common Functional Gastrointestinal disorders like Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Heartburn, Abdominal Pain, Peptic Ulcer and Gallstone Pancreatitis which manages gastrointestinal motility and Functional GIT disorders.
Gastrointestinal oncology cancer is the most common cancer in the world. It is also called gastric cancer. It refers to malignant conditions of gastrointestinal GI Cancer is the most common form of cancer. The treatment of GI Cancer depends on the type of cancer, its stage, and its expansion. There numerous types of GI cancer such as liver cancer, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, Biliary tract cancer and various.
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy is a technique from side to side which the doctors can be able to lookout inside the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal endoscopy can be executed either in an inpatient or an outpatient setting. Through this process assess the problems of the gastrointestinal tract such as ulcers, inflamed mucous, abnormal growth, bleeding in the colon. Endoscopy has various names depending on which part of the digestive system the doctor seeks to inspect.
Recent biological and medical advances have clarified the mechanisms of chronic liver inflammation and succeeded in providing new therapies for various liver diseases. The aim of this issue is to summarize the current status of the basic and clinical findings in chronic liver inflammation and its complications. Such information will help develop better management programs for patients and can improve their prognosis.
Gastrointestinal pathology is the subspecialty of surgical pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the digestive tract and accessory organs, such as the pancreas and liver. The main purpose of the gastrointestinal tract is the transport of food and the absorption of nutrients. Many pathologic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract impair either or both of these functions. The gastrointestinal tract, and especially the colon, is a common site of malignancy. The two main symptoms related to the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract are abdominal pain and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. • The four categories of the causes of acute abdominal pain are (1) inflammation, including appendicitis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, and diverticulitis; (2) perforation; (3) obstruction; and (4) vascular disease, including acute ischemia and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. The five categories of causes of chronic abdominal pain are (1) inflammation, including peptic ulcer disease, esophagitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis; (2) vascular disease, including chronic ischemia; (3) metabolic disease, including porphyria; (4) abdominal wall pain; and (5) functional causes, including irritable bowel syndrome. The most frequent causes of chronic abdominal pain are functional.
Gallbladder diseases considered here include gallstones, tumors, and acute acalculous cholecystitis. Gallbladder stones are an extremely common disorder and are usually asymptomatic. Some patients experience biliary colic, intermittent and often severe pain in the epigastrium or right upper quadrant, and at times between the scapulas because of temporary obstruction of the cystic duct with a gallstone. If the cystic duct obstruction persists, the gallbladder becomes inflamed and the patient develops cholecystitis, an acute inflammation, and infection of the gallbladder. Biliary tract diseases considered one of the most common causes of extrahepatic biliary obstruction is choledocholithiasis, with one or more stones in the common bile duct or common hepatic duct causing biliary obstruction. Cholangiocarcinoma is an adenocarcinoma of the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile duct.
Gastrointestinal disorders include such conditions as constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, hemorrhoids, anal fissures, perianal abscesses, anal fistulas, perianal infections, diverticular diseases, colitis, colon polyps, and cancer. Many of these can be prevented or minimized by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, practicing good bowel habits, and submitting to cancer screening. Functional GI disorders are disorders of gut-brain interaction. It is a group of disorders classified by GI symptoms related to any combination of the following: motility disturbance, visceral hypersensitivity, altered mucosal and immune function, altered gut microbiota, and altered central nervous system (CNS) processing. Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including functional bowel diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease (CD) and colitis, afflict more than one in five Americans, particularly women. While some GI disorders may be controlled by diet and pharmaceutical medications, others are poorly moderated by conventional treatments. Symptoms of GI disorders often include cramping, abdominal pain, inflammation of the lining of the large and/or small intestine, chronic diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and weight loss.
Bariatric surgery (weight decrease surgery) fuses an arrangement of systems performed on people who have rich imposingness. Weight diminishment is proficient by diminishing the measure of the stomach with a gastric band or through pondering of a piece of the stomach (sleeve gastrectomy or biliopancreatic redirection with duodenal switch) or by resecting and re-directing the minute stomach related framework to an infinitesimal stomach pocket (gastric bypass surgery).
Pediatric gastrointestinal issues are common in kids and young people with complaints of abdominal pain. Our brains and our GI tracts have firmly associated the mind and body association. The most widely recognized Pediatric common GI condition is functional stomach pain. Youngsters with this issue normally encounter intermittent agony amidst the stomach area. Medicines or treatment for functional gastrointestinal issue varies with the symptom that influences the patient most.
Surgeons continue their efforts to improve their techniques to operate colorectal cancers. They now have a better understanding of what makes colorectal surgery more likely to be successful, such as making, sure enough, lymph nodes are removed during the operation. Esophageal cancer usually begins in the cells that line the inside of the esophagus. Pancreatic cancer begins in the tissues of your pancreas an organ in your abdomen that lies horizontally behind the lower part of your stomach. Colorectal cancer is cancer that starts in the colon or rectum. The colon and the rectum are parts of the large intestine, which is the lower part of the body’s digestive system. Pancreatic cancer is aggressive with few symptoms until the cancer is advanced. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea, and jaundice. Treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Gallbladder cancer is a relatively uncommon cancer. If it is diagnosed early enough, it can be cured by removing the gallbladder, part of the liver and associated lymph nodes. Most often it is found after symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice and vomiting occur, and it has spread to other organs such as the liver.
The esophagus is the muscular tube that carries food, and liquids from your mouth to the stomach. You may not be aware of your esophagus until you swallow something too large, too hot, or too cold. You may also notice it when something is wrong. You may feel pain or have trouble swallowing. The most common problem with the esophagus is GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease). With GERD, a muscle at the end of your esophagus does not close properly. This allows stomach contents to leak back, or reflux, into the esophagus and irritate it. Over time, GERD can cause damage to the esophagus. Other problems include heartburn, cancer, and esophagitis. Doctors may use various tests to make a diagnosis. These include imaging tests, an upper endoscopy, and a biopsy.
When stomach acid backs up into the esophagus — a condition called acid reflux — you may feel a burning pain in the middle of your chest. It often occurs after meals or at night, says Neville Bamji, MD, a clinical instructor of medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and a gastroenterologist with New York Gastroenterology Associates.
Functional disorders are those in which the gastrointestinal (GI) tract looks normal but doesn't work properly. They are the most common problems affecting the GI tract (including the colon and rectum). Constipation and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are two common examples.