Antimicrobial Resistance and Its Consequences
Antimicrobial resistance occurs when microbes like bacteria and fungi develop the ability to defeat the drugs intended to kill them. That means the germs are not killed and continue to grow. Resistant infections can be difficult and occasionally become impossible, to treat. Antimicrobial resistance is a serious global public health risk, which is annually slaying millions of people globally. This has the potential to affect people at any stage of life, as well as the healthcare, veterinary, and agriculture industries. This makes it one of the world’s most crucial public health complications. Bacteria and fungi do not have to be unaffected by every antibiotic or antifungal to be dangerous, this means that if it is resistant to even one antibiotic can cause serious problems. We invite all the microbiologists who are active in these fields of antimicrobial resistance, its major consequences, and combating process to join us at the future Clinical Microbiology Conference 2023 and share their research findings and get recognized by the eminent international organizing committee member of LONGDOM Conferences.
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Current Bacteriology and Bacterial Infections
Bacteria are single-celled microbes that are deficient in a nuclear membrane and are metabolically active and multiply by binary fission. Pathologically they are the main cause of disease and are sophisticated and highly adaptable to most ecological conditions. Many bacteria multiply at rapid rates, and different species can utilize an enormous variety of hydrocarbon substrates, including phenol, rubber, and petroleum. These organisms exist widely in both opportunistic and free-living forms. The discipline of bacteriology advanced from the need of physicians to test and apply the germ theory of disease and from economic concerns relating to mainly the spoilage of foods and wine. The initial advances in pathogenic bacteriology were resulting from the identification and classification of bacteria associated with specific diseases.
Today, most bacterial diseases of humans have been identified, although important variants continue to evolve and sometimes emerge, i.e. Legionnaire's Disease, tuberculosis, toxic shock syndrome, etc. Major advances in bacteriology over the last century resulted in the development of many effective vaccines like pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, diphtheria toxoid, and tetanus toxoid as well as other vaccines e.g., cholera, typhoid, and plague vaccines which are less effective or have mild side effects. Now the recombinant bacteria produced by genetic engineering are enormously useful in bacteriologic research and are being employed to manufacture scarce biomolecules which are needed for research and patient care. Also, in recent years, medical scientists have concentrated on the study of pathogenic mechanisms and host defenses. Understanding host-parasite relationships involving specific pathogens requires familiarity with the fundamental characteristics of the bacterium, the host, and their interactions. Join us and stay tuned to the latest findings on these hot topics at the Clinical Microbiology Conferences scheduled in 2023.
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Microbial Biofilm, Pathogenicity and Virulence
Biofilms are the aggregation of microbial cells, which are associated with the surface in almost an irreversible manner. It exists in a variety of forms like dental plaque, pond scum, or the slimy build-up in the sink. Biofilm formation involves sequence of steps like conditioning, attachment, metabolism, and detachment. Biofilm consists of water channels, Exopolysaccharide, and Environmental DNA, which plays an important role in nutrient circulation, its development, and structure stabilization. Resistance of planktonic bacteria against antimicrobial agents gets increased on the formation of biofilm, which may be the presence of diffusive barrier EPS or neutralizing enzyme, cells undergoing starvation, or due to spore formation. There are numerous factors, which affect microbial biofilm formation such as substratum effects, conditioning film on substratum, hydrodynamics, characteristics of the aqueous medium, cell characteristics, and environmental factors. Biofilm can cause industrial, medical, and household damage and is a reason for the loss of billions of dollars every year. Pathogenicity is the ability of microbes to cause disease in a particular host species. Such diseases are caused by microbes, which we call pathogens. Virulence is known as the quantitative expression of the pathogenicity of a certain strain of bacteria. We are organizing the Clinical Microbiology Meeting in 2023 where we will be discussing all the research findings in detail, so join us and upgrade your knowledge at the venue.
Microbial Biofilm Conference | Microbial Biofilm Congress | Microbial Biofilm Meetings | Microbial Pathogenesis Conference | Microbial Pathogenesis Meeting | Biofilm Conferences | Microbial Virulence Seminars
Infection Control and Antimicrobial Stewardship
Infection control is the measures that need to take care of in order to reduce the transmission of infectious microorganisms in the hospital area. Now more than ever before, antimicrobial stewardship is of the utmost importance as a way to optimize the use of antimicrobials to prevent the development of resistance and improve patient outcomes. Healthcare facilities, whether hospitals or primary care clinics are an area with an elevated risk of disease transmission due to the presence and relative ratio of susceptible individuals. One in ten patients gets an infection whilst receiving care, yet effective infection prevention and control reduces a huge number of healthcare-associated infections. In a healthcare setting, the three components required for infection spread i.e. source, susceptible person, and transmission. Infection control and prevention is a global issue and there are many protocols and guidelines that can be followed to minimize the spread of infection between people, within a population, and globally. Categorizing at-risk groups such as children, older people and those with chronic conditions can also help guide relevant strategies to protect these vulnerable groups. We invite you to join this microbiology conference and contribute a talk on your research paper and take your findings to the next level.
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Diagnostic Microbiology and Outcome
Diagnostic Microbiology is the tool that makes it possible to identify the exact pathogens of infectious diseases and the most optimal therapy at the level of individual patients. Conventional methods require time to grow the microbes in vitro under specific conditions and not all microbes can easily be cultured. This is followed by biochemical methods for identification which further makes the process lengthy. Transport of the specimens under less-than-ideal conditions, prior use of antibiotics, and a small number of organisms are among the factors that render culture-based methods less reliable. Newer methods depend on the amplification of nucleic acids followed by the use of probes for identification. This mitigates the need for a higher microbial load, and the presence of metabolically active viable organisms, and shortens the time. These methods can be used to detect antibiotic resistance genes directly from the specimen and help direct targeted therapy with efficacy. Now more advanced diagnostic methods are emerging, focused on speed, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness. The examples are MALDI-TOF-MS has been approved by the FDA for microbial identification, the NGS workflow begins with pathogen culturing and isolation, followed by DNA extraction and library preparation., and multiplex PCR is especially useful for specimens from patients presenting with nonspecific symptoms, which may result from any number of different pathogens, etc. This scheduled microbiology conference will be focusing on all the current updates and findings in these fields and provide the best platform for all the researchers and attendees for mutual collaboration and career growth.
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Emerging Infectious Diseases and its Prevention
Emerging infectious diseases are infections that have recently appeared within a population or those whose incidence or geographic range is rapidly increasing or threatens to increase in the near future. Emerging infections can be caused by previously undetected or unknown infectious agents, known agents that have spread to new geographic locations or new populations, previously known agents whose role in specific diseases has previously gone unrecognized, re-emergence of agents whose incidence of disease had significantly declined in the past, but whose incidence of the disease has reappeared. This class of diseases is known as re-emerging infectious diseases. A few deadly emerging infectious diseases have been discovered, including SARS, MERS, Ebola, chikungunya, avian flu, swine flu, Zika, and most recently COVID-19, caused by a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Emerging infections account for at least 12% of all human pathogens. Emerging infectious diseases can be caused by newly identified microbes, including novel species or strains of viruses (e.g. novel coronaviruses, ebolaviruses, HIV). Some EIDs evolve from a known pathogen, as occurs with new strains of influenza. EIDs may also result from the spread of an existing disease to a new population in a different geographic region, as occurs with West Nile fever outbreaks.
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Epidemiology, Public Health and Vaccination
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the dissemination, patterns, and factors of health and disease conditions in a defined population. It is a basis of public health and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Public Health is the discipline of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals Analyzing the determinants of the health of a population and the threats it faces is the basis for public health. The public can be as small as a handful of people or as large as a village or an entire city, sometimes similar to a pandemic it may encompass a number of continents. The concept of health takes into account physical, psychological, and social well-being. Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help and boost the immune system to develop immunity from a disease. Vaccines contain a microorganism or virus in a weakened, live, or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism. In stimulating the body's adaptive immunity, they help prevent sickness from an infectious disease. When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results. This microbiology forum will discuss all these topics in detail and provide a perfect opportunity for career growth in these fields.
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Microbial Genomics and Infectious Disease
Microbial diversification and adaptation have been accompanied by gene loss and genome reduction, genome rearrangement, horizontal gene transfer, and gene duplication. The first two of these processes are especially evident in human-specific pathogens, such as Bordetella pertussis, Tropheryma whipplei, and Yersinia pestis. Differences in the sequence and structure of genomes from members of a microbial population reflect the composite effects of mutation, recombination, and selection. With the increasing availability of genome sequences, these effects have become better characterized and more effectively exploited so as to understand the history and evolution of microbes and viruses and their sometimes intimate relationships with humans. The resulting insights have practical importance for epidemiologic investigations, forensics, diagnostics, and vaccine development. Technical advances in sequencing technologies and new computational developments, alongside continuous reductions in sequencing costs, have democratized microbial genomics, fuelling a rise in the number of available microbial genomes. From microbial evolution to microbial diversity, host–pathogen interactions to disease-causing genetic variation, genomics has provided transformative insights into microbiology. Moreover, genomic technologies show great potential for clinical diagnostics or the real-time detection and surveillance of epidemics.
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Medical Mycology and Virology
Fungal infections can occur anywhere in your body but, most commonly, they begin on your skin. Most cause some discomfort, such as redness and itching on the skin. Usually over-the-counter or prescription medications take care of this. Sometimes these skin infections do not heal though and they worsen, possibly causing sepsis. When a fungus is inhaled and enters your body or is introduced into your body in another way, the risk of infection rises, especially if you have an impaired immune system. People with impaired immune systems are more likely to develop sepsis with fungal infections than people with normal immune systems. Fungal infections can occur anywhere in your body but, most commonly, they begin on your skin. Sometimes these skin infections do not heal though and they worsen, possibly causing sepsis. When a fungus is inhaled and enters your body or is introduced into your body in another way, the risk of infection rises, especially if you have an impaired immune system. People with impaired immune systems are more likely to develop sepsis with fungal infections than people with normal immune systems. The priority list of most common fungal pathogens is listed into three priority tiers based upon surveys and discussions with fungal infectious disease experts. The most dangerous is the "critical group," which contains just four fungal pathogens: Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, and Candida auris. Cryptococcus and Aspergillus are both invasive fungi that can infect the lungs, causing pneumonia-like symptoms that can progress into more severe sickness. Candida albicans normally live on the skin and inside the body without causing any problems. But if it starts to grow out of control, it can result in a thrush of the mouth and throat or a vaginal yeast infection, also known as vaginal candidiasis. Candida auris is an emerging fungal threat, with very little known about it so far. But it's often multidrug-resistant and has caused serious outbreaks in healthcare facilities.
Medical virology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of the biology of viruses and viral diseases, including the distribution, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution, and clinical aspects of viruses. A few notable examples that have garnered the attention of the public health community and the population at large include COVID-19, Ebola, SARS, Influenza, Zika, Yellow fever, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV / AIDS), Human papillomavirus (HPV), viral gastroenteritis, Varicella, and Viral hepatitis. We invite you to participate in this clinical microbiology conference in 2023 and get exposed to a wide range of research discussions with global mycologists and virologists.
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Microbial Ecology and Environment
Microorganisms, by their omnipresence, impact the entire biosphere. Microbial life plays a primary role in regulating biogeochemical systems in virtually all of our planet's environments, including some of the most extreme, from frozen environments and acidic lakes, to hydrothermal vents at the bottom of deepest oceans, and some of the most familiar, such as the human small intestine. These tiny living organisms have tremendous biodiversity, which provides support to nearly all living forms, including humans, and it plays an important role in many ecosystem services. The existence of biogeographic patterns within microbial communities has been established and explained in relation to landscape-scale processes, including selection, drift, dispersal, and mutation. These all classes of microorganisms are one way or another way serve as the backbone of all ecosystems, but even more so in the zones where photosynthesis is unable to take place because of the absence of light. In such zones, chemosynthetic microbes provide energy and carbon to the other organisms. These chemotrophic organisms can also function in environments lacking oxygen by using other electron acceptors for their respiration. Biotechnology may be used alongside microbial ecology to address a number of environmental and economic challenges. For example, molecular techniques such as community fingerprinting can be used to track changes in microbial communities over time or assess their biodiversity. We invite all microbiologists to join this event and become a part of this in-depth discussion journey and also, showcase your finding with global professionals and make this clinical microbiology meeting a huge success.
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