Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion. Nutrition focuses on how diseases, conditions, and problems can be prevented or reduced with a healthy diet. Food Science is a multi-disciplinary field involving chemistry, biochemistry, nutrition, microbiology and engineering to give one the scientific knowledge to solve real problems associated with the many facets of the food system.
Essential nutrients are nutrients that the body cannot make or produce in sufficient quantities. Those nutrients help in body functioning, essential nutrients must be obtained through the diet.
Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients. The term malnutrition covers 2 broad groups of conditions. One is ‘under nutrition’—which includes stunting (low height for age), wasting (low weight for height), underweight (low weight for age) and micronutrient deficiencies or insufficiencies (a lack of important vitamins and minerals). The other is overweight, obesity and diet-related non communicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and cancer).
Nutrient Metabolism defines the molecular fate of nutrients and other dietary compounds in humans, as well as outlining the molecular basis of processes supporting nutrition, such as chemical sensing and appetite control. There are three general categories of body types (somatotypes):
Nutrition is a critical determinant of immune responses and malnutrition. Protein-energy malnutrition is associated with a significant impairment of cell-mediated immunity, phagocyte function, complement system, secretory immunoglobulin an antibody concentrations, and cytokine production. Deficiency of single nutrients also results in altered immune responses.
In pediatric nutrition the most important overall theme is breastfeeding. Mothers were offered alternative ways of infant feeding. Today restoring breastfeeding is a major goal for pediatricians, midwifes, and lactation advisers. Feeding the premature baby and adding long chain fatty acids and prebiotics to formula is an area of growing interest. Geriatric nutrition applies nutrition principles to delay effects of aging and disease, to aid in the management of the physical, psychological, and psychosocial changes commonly associated with growing old.
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is intravenous administration of nutrition, which may include protein, carbohydrate, fat, minerals and electrolytes, vitamins and other trace elements for patients who cannot eat or absorb enough food through tube feeding formula
Nutritional assessment is the interpretation of anthropometric,biochemical (laboratory), clinical and dietary data to determine whether a person or groups of people are well nourished or malnourished. Nutritional assessment can be done using the ABCD methods. Nutrition care includes four steps.
Vitamin deficiency is the condition of a long-term lack of a vitamin. When caused by not enough vitamin intake, it can be classified as a primary deficiency, whereas when due to an underlying disorder such as mal absorption, it is called a secondary deficiency.
Hypervitaminosis is a condition of abnormally high storage levels of vitamins, which can lead to toxic symptoms. Specific medical names of the different conditions are derived from the vitamin involved: an excess of vitamin A, for example, is called Hypervitaminosis A. Hypervitaminosis are primarily caused by fat-soluble vitamins (D and A), as these are stored by the body for longer than the water-soluble vitamins
Minerals are specific kinds of nutrients that your body needs in order to function properly. A mineral deficiency occurs when your body doesn’t obtain or absorb the required amount of a mineral. There are different types of diets that might result in this deficiency. A poor diet that relies on junk food, or a diet that lacks adequate fruits and vegetables can be possible causes.
Functional foods look like food and are modified for greater nutritional value. Dietary supplements look like drugs and are made from food, isolated nutrients or food-like substances to augment health. Nutraceuticals are a sector of dietary supplements made only from whole foods to augment health.
Nutritional value is used to provide well-balanced ratio of the essential nutrients like carbohydrates, fat, protein, minerals, and vitamins in items of food or diet.
A balanced diet with sufficient essential nutritional elements is critical for maintaining a healthy body. Both nutritional excess and deficiency are associated with disease. For example, nutritional excess, particularly in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats, coupled with physical inactivity, can result in chronic inflammatory conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, deficiencies in essential nutrients can lead to stunted growth, poor immune function and classical conditions such as scurvy, osteoporosis, depression and xeropththalmia.
Obesity is the condition where the excess fat accumulates in our body which is lining under the adipose tissue. It leads to various health-related problems such as heart attack, stroke, hypertension etc. Diabetes is the major problem all over the world caused by various environmental & genetic factors. The major risk is kidney failure. Preventing and treating obesity will help in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Endocrinology is completely related to the endocrine glands & hormones in our body. It is associated with physiology & medicine.
Weight management is a process which involves adopting long-term lifestyle modifications to maintain a healthy body weight. Methods of weight management include eating a healthy diet and increasing physical activity levels. Diet programs can produce weight loss over a short period of time, but maintaining this weight loss is difficult and often requires a permanent lifestyle change which includes exercise and a low calorie diet. Weight management involves many ways to track weight over time and set ideal body weights for different individuals depending on their age, sex and height.
Hypochlorhydria is the medical term for a low level of stomach acid. People with hypochlorhydria may experience digestive issues, nutritional deficiencies, and gastrointestinal infections, but prompt treatment can prevent serious complications by aiding the body in absorbing certain nutrients, such as protein and vitamin B-12
Diet and exercise are important parts of managing PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome). This is because young women with PCOS often have higher levels of insulin (a hormone) in their blood, and many have trouble maintaining a healthy weight. Knowing the right types of foods to eat as well as the kinds of food to limit can improve the way you feel and may help you lose weight, Eating well, staying active, and maintaining a healthy weight.
Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods that most often trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Food intolerance or food sensitivity occurs when a person has difficulty digesting a particular food. This can lead to symptoms such as intestinal gas, abdominal pain or diarrhoea.
Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that needs urgent medical attention. Foods (such as peanuts, tree nuts, seafood, wheat, milk and eggs), insect bites and stings and some medicines are the most common allergens that cause anaphylaxis. Within minutes of exposure to the allergen, the person can have potentially life-threatening symptoms, which may include difficult or noisy breathing, swelling of the tongue, tightness in the throat, difficulty talking , hoarse voice, wheeze , persistent cough, persistent dizziness or collapse becoming pale and floppy (in young children).
The nutrients we provide to our body will also play a vital role in our health, growth, development of functional abilities and prevention of diseases. Finest nutrition provides all nutrients in both kind and amount, these nutrients will be the foundation stone for good health and the cutting edge of prevention.